Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/16

Click to flip

16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

MCAT expertise: the MCAT likes to present complex, novel molecules and then test you on the most basic information about them. Therefore, when dealing with carbohydrates on the exam,...

look for the functional groups we have seen before (aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols) and realize that they retain the same chemical properties that you already know.

Sugars with aldehydes as their most oxidized group are ______; sugars with ketones as their most oxidized group are _____.

Sugars with aldehydes as their most oxidized group are aldoses; sugars with ketones as their most oxidized group are ketoses.

Sugars with the highest-numbered chiral carbon with the -OH group on the right are D-sugars; those with the -OH on the left are L-sugars. D- and L- forms of the same sugar are enantiomers.

_____ are a subtype of diastereomers that differ at exactly one chiral carbon.


_____ are a subtype of epimers that differ at the anomeric carbon.

Epimers are a subtype of diastereomers that differ at exactly one chiral carbon.
Anomers are a subtype of epimers that differ at the anomeric carbon.

Epimers are a subtype of diastereomers that differ at exactly one chiral carbon.


Anomers are a subtype of epimers that differ at the anomeric carbon.

The most _____ carbon always gets the number 1 in numbering.

oxidozed

oxidozed

Key concept: when trying to figure out how many possible stereoisomers can exist for a multiple carbon compound, identify the number of chiral carbons (n) and plug into the formula:

2^n

The _______ carbon is the new chiral center formed in ring closure; it was the carbon containing the carbonyl in the straight-chain form. β goes up, α goes down.

anomeric carbon

anomeric carbon

Cyclic compounds can undergo _________, in which they shift from one anomeric form to another with the straight-chain form as an intermediate.

Cyclic compounds can undergo mutarotation, in which they shift from one anomeric form to another with the straight-chain form as an intermediate.

Cyclic compounds can undergo mutarotation, in which they shift from one anomeric form to another with the straight-chain form as an intermediate.



Sugars that can be oxidized are reducing agents themselves (reducing sugars), and can be detected by reacting with Tollen's or Benedict's reagents.

-A positive Tollen's test reduce Ag+ (silver cation) to metallic silver


-A positive Benedicts test is indicated by a red precipitate

-Sugars can react with carboxylic acids and their derivative, forming esters (_________).


-________ is a similar reaction in which a phosphate ester is formed by transferring a phosphate group from ATP onto a sugar.

-Sugars can react with carboxylic acids and their derivative, forming esters (esterification).


-Phosphorylation is a similar reaction in which a phosphate ester is formed by transferring a phosphate group from ATP onto a sugar.

______ formation is the basis for building complex carbohydrates and requires the anomeric carbon to link to another sugar.

Glycoside formation

Glycoside formation

Common disaccharides include _____ (glucose-fructose), _____ (galactose-glucose), and _______ (glucose-glucose)

Common disaccharides include sucrose (glucose-fructose), lactose (galactose-glucose), and maltose (glucose-glucose)

Polysaccharides:


-______ is the main structural component for plant cell walls and is a main source of fiber


-_____ (amylose and amylopectin) function as a main energy storage form for plants


-_____ function as a main energy storage form for animals.

-cellulose is the main structural component for plant cell walls and is a main source of fiber


-starches (amylose and amylopectin) function as a main energy storage form for plants


-glycogen function as a main energy storage form for animals.

_____ can be oxidized to reduce electron carriers to facilitate processes like oxidative phosphorylation.

Sugars can be oxidized to reduce electron carriers to facilitate processes like oxidative phosphorylation.

Amylopectin is more soluble in water than amylose because of its branched structure and the increased interaction with surrounding solution.

Glycogen has greater rate of enzymatic cleavage than amylopectin because of the higher frequency of branching.

Glycogen has greater rate of enzymatic cleavage than amylopectin because of the higher frequency of branching.

Difference between homopolysaccharide and heteropolysaccharide

homopolysaccharide is a polysaccharide of the same monosaccharide. A heteropolysaccaride is a polysaccharide of different monosaccharides.