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77 Cards in this Set

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What fetal tissue gives rise to male accessory sex organs?

-Wolffian ducts

What fetal tissue gives rise to female accessory sex organs?

-Mullerian ducts

What is important to the development of each gender's accessory organs?

-Fordevelopment of male accessory sex organs, the developing embryo must be producingtestosterone, also the Sertoli cells need to secrete MIF to cause the re-absorption of themullerian ducts.


-The female accessory organs do not require anything from the fetus -just the absence of testosterone.

During what period of a female’s life is she reproductively active?

-After puberty untilmenopause (around age 50).

-

What is a primary follicle? Where are they found?

-A primary follicle is an ovum surrounded by a layer of granulosa cells.The ovum is one of the germ cells and in the primary follicle stage is still diploid, it is arrested inthe first meiotic division.


- Primary follicles are found in the ovaries.

What hormone stimulates the maturation of primary follicles? From where is the hormone secreted?

- FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone)


-FSH is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland.

Where is estrogen produced?

- Estrogen is produced from the granulosa cells that surround thedeveloping follicles

Is estrogen necessary for the female embryonic sex determination?

-no

Is estrogen necessary for the development of female secondary sex characteristics?

-yes

What are the 2 phases of the ovarian cycle?

-The follicular phase and the luteal phase. W

When does ovulation occur?

- Between the follicular phase and the luteal phase, after the "LH surge".

What is happening to the estrogen level in each phase of the ovarian cycle?

-In the follicular phase, estrogen levels are rising asmore and more granulosa cells are being produced, this increased level will cause the LH surge.


-In the luteal phase, estrogen also rises, but not to the extent that progesterone rises.

What phase is associated with increasing levels of progesterone?

-The luteal phase.

How does estrogen influence gonadotropin release?

- Low levels of estrogen inhibit both LH andFSH (although inhibin is the primary inhibitor of FSH), high levels of estrogen have the oppositeeffects - the higher levels of estrogen are responsible for the LH surge (and the smaller FSHsurge).

What hormone change proceeds ovulation?

- A spike or "surge" of LH released into the bloodstream causes ovulation.

What happens to the remaining cells of the follicle after the ovum is released?

- The remaining cellsof the graffian follicle after the ovum is released become the corpus luteum. (After ovulation, theremaining follicles with ovum still within them undergo atresia (degradation) - these degradedfollicles are called atretic follicles).

What hormones does the corpus luteum release?

-Primarily secretes progesterone, but also secretesestrogen.

How does the CL affect the gonadotropin release?

- Progesterone will inhibit both the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary so that no GnRH or FSH or LH are released (negativefeedback on both structures.)

Where does the ovulated ovum go?

- The ovulated ovum normally is swept into the oviduct(fallopian tube) by the cilia on the fimbriae.

Where does fertilization usually occur?

- Fertilizationusually occurs in the first part of the oviduct.

If the ovum is not fertilized, what happens to the corpus luteum? What happens to the estrogen and progesterone levels?

-The corpus luteum will shrink and begin to degrade (at which point it is referredto as the corpus albicans) and it will eventually dissolve


-As the corpus luteum degrades it stops producing progesterone and estrogen, which allows the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to re-start secretion of FSH and LH and repeat the entire ovarian cycle.

If the ovum is fertilized, what happens to the corpus luteum. What happens to the estrogen and progesterone levels?

- When fertilized, the ovum secretes hCG, which will help maintain the corpus luteum.


- Since the corpus luteum is intact andmaintained, both the progesterone and estrogen levels stay elevated.

What are the 3 phases of the uterine cycle?

-Menstrual, proliferative and secretory

How does estrogen affect the endometrium of the uterus?

-Estrogen causes a new growth of endometriallining to form.

How does progesterone affect the endometrium of the uterus?

-Progesterone causesthe endometrial lining to become thick, vascular and spongy - ready for implantation

What hormone will show up in the female’s blood if fertilization has occurred?

- hCG - humanchorionic gonadotropin hormone.

When will hCG show up?

-The blastocyst will actually startsecreting hCG by about the fourth to sixth day after fertilization, however, it takes about a monthbefore enough has been produced that it can be detected in the blood or in the urine. (This is thehormone which is tested for in all pregnancy tests).

Where is hCG produced?

- It is produced by theblastocyst.

What effect will hCG have on the corpus luteum?

-It prevents the corpus luteum fromdegrading.

What are birth control pills made of? How do they prevent fertility?

- Progesterone and estrogen


-The progesterone will prevent the hypothalamus/anterior pituitary from secreting FSH and LHthus preventing follicle (egg) formation and ovulation, the presence of the estrogen allows forcontinued replacement of the endometrial lining.

Does fetal and maternal blood mix normally?

-No

What tissue structures are formed from the fetal part of the placenta which participate in exchange of molecules across the placenta?

-The chorionfrondosum

What is one event that participates in the onset of labor? What does it trigger?

-The stretch of the cervix as the fetusdrops into the "birth channel".


- The release of oxytocin from the posteriorpituitary

How is oxytocin also involved in milk production?

- Oxytocin will cause smoothmuscle contraction around the mammary ducts, that allows for milk ejection or "let down".

Why is it important for new born babies to be breast fed?

-A new born's immune system is not, andwill not, develop until about age 1- 1.5 years old. The fetus will receive IgG antibodies across theplacenta in utero, then can continue to receive IgA antibodies which are secreted into the mothers milk, that will help the new born to passively fight pathogens until his/her immune systemdevelops.

Ovaries

-the gonads

Follicles

-produce female gametes (ova) in ovarian cycle


-located in ovaries

Fallopian tubes

-passageway where the ova travel to reach the uterus

Fimbriae

-extensions of fallopian tubes that cover each ovary


-the cilia of its lining draw in ovulated eggs

Perimetrium

-outer layer of connective tissue in uterus

Myometrium

-the middle layer of smooth muscle in uterus

Endometrium

-the hormonally-responsive inner epithelial layer that is shed during menstruation in uterus

Gestation

-the time the baby is growing in the uterus (10 months of pregnancy)

Oogonia

-immature egg cells


-diploid cells w/ 46 chromosomes

Oocytes

-oogonia towards the end of gestation; begin meiosis but arrest in prophase I

primary follicle

-contain primary oocytes

secondary follicle

-further developed primary follicles; contain vesicles

Antrum

-fluid filled cavity of the follicle

Graafian follicle

-a follicle once it has formed an antrum

Corona radiata

-ring of granulosa cells that enclose secondary oocyte

Zona pellucida

-gelatinous layer b/n oocyte & radiata; form barrier to sperm penetration and contains receptors to recognize sperm as same species

Thecal cells

-produce androgens like Testosterone; T moves where granulosa cells are to convert it into E w/aromatase enzyme

Atretic follicles

-follicles that degenerate after 10-14 days after menstruation

Estrogen

-helps w/shedding of endometrial lining

Corpus luteum

-follicle formed from LH; secretes progesterone & estrogen to prevent endometrium from shedding

Progesterone

-Progesterone causes the endometrial lining to become thick, vascular and spongy - ready for implantation


-inhibits both the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary so that no GnRH or FSH or LH are released

Corpus albicans

-formed if corpus luteum is not fertilized


-non-functional remnant

Menstrual cycle

-about 28 days


-the continuous shedding and rebuilding of the endometrium

Follicular phase

-days 1 thru ovulation; in the ovaries


-follicles are growing and preparing to release egg

Luteal phase

-time from ovulation to menstruation of the menstrual cycle; in the ovaries


-corpus luteum is formed

Menstrual phase

-results from drop in P& E following low CL degeneration


-low P causes constriction of spiral arteries


-Blood flow stops, causing necrosis & sloughing of endometrium


-endometrial lining is sloughed off

Proliferative phase

-occurs during follicular phase; E levels increase


-E stimulates growth of endometrial lining


-E causes cervical mucus to become thin & watery to allow sperm penetration



Secretory phase

-AKA progestational phase


-occurs during luteal phase; endometrium becomes ready for implantation


-P&E cause endometrium to become thick, vascular & spongy


-P causes cervical mucus to thicken & become sticky

Oral contraceptives

-pills usually contain synthetic E & P taken daily for 3 weeks after menstrual period


-mimic CL so that negative feedback inhibits ovulation


-Placebo pills are taken in 4th week to permit menstruation

Menopause

-when ova are no longer produced

Fertilization

-normally occurs in fallopian tubes



Capacitation

-freshly ejaculated sperm must spend more than 7 hours in female reproductive tract to be fertile

Acrosomal reaction

-when sperm reach the zona pellucida, ZP3 receptors recognize it as the right species


-the zona pellucida is then changed and allows penetration of that sperm but not of any other sperm

Blastocyst

-a hollow ball of cells


-interior contains inner cell mass destined to become fetus


-outer cells are trophoblastic cells

hCG - human chorionicgonadotropin

-CL survives & pregnancy maintained b/c blastocyst secretes hCG before implantation


-similar to LH & keeps CL from degenerating

Cytotrophoblast

-forms villi that grow into cavities producing chorion frondosum on uterine wall side

Syncytiotrophoblast

-secretes enzymes that create blood-filled cavities in maternal tissue (endometrium) and generates activity where mom's blood fills the cavity

Chorion frondosum

-contain's the baby's blood; formed by cytotrophoblasts

Parturition

-medical term for labor

Oxytocin

-increased levels contract myoepithelial cells surrounding alveoli to eject milk

Mammary glands

-hold milk

Mammary ducts

-leave the mammary glands and carry milk to the nipple