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54 Cards in this Set

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study of fish

Fish phylum?



Flexible rod that helps organize developing cells in embryo, replaced by spinal column in most vertebrates and supports organs

Dorsal nerve cord

spinal cord forms along dorsal side

Pharyngeal pouches

become gills in some verebrates, becomes back of throat and inner ear in humans

Post anal tail

Human embryo

time for gill and tail

Pharyngeal gill slits appear 4 weeks
post anal tail disappears around 8 weeks



characteristics of chordates

-bones/cariliche around dorsal nerve cord
-Cranium(skull) to protect brain
-endoskeleton made of bone/cartilage
-closed circulatory system
-ventral heart

How many species of fish?

30k and most succesful

Class Osteichthyes

Bony fish

Class Chondrichthyes

Cartlige less evolved but more primative

Ray finned fish have

Spines in fins(no bones)

Lobe finned fish have

short stubby limbs(bones)

Bony Fish characteristics

Endoskeleton of bone

scales and fins

lungs or swim bladder

Perch coloration

Darker on top/lighter on bottom

Perch body shape


Perch rays

protection for fish

Perch operculum

Covers gills

water in through mouth and out through slit behind operculum.
pumps water over gills

Perch nostrils

Dead end pockets


Perch eye

no eyelid

Perch mouth

teeth dont chew used to hold

perch ears


Lateral line

detects water pressure and water vibrations


exit for undigested waste

Urogenital Opening(pore)

exit for urine and egg/sperm


barring eggs(female)

Reseration of Perch

Countercuirent flow system-blood flows in oppisitee direction of water to increase movement of oxygen

gas exchange in gills(diffusion)

blood inside lower oxygen, higher carbon dioxide/outside gill, higher oxygen lower carbon dioxide

Functions of gils

Gas exchange

excrete nitorogenous waste as ammonia

Freshwater fish live

In hypotonic solution


water is more consentrated outside of the fish than outside

Hypotinic solution

water constantly moving in
ions constantly moving out

Freshwater fish must

Constantly urinate to remove excess water

actively pum ions through gills

Saltwater fish live in a

Hypertonic solution

Hypertonic solution

Ions are constantly enterinc its body

water is constantly leaving body through skin

Saltwater fish tend to


drink sea water

urinate less to conserve water

activly transport ions out thorugh gills

Reproduction of perch

Most fish have external fertilization

External fertilization

Females lay eggs males spread sperm across eggs

Young fish are called


Swim Bladder used for

Buoyancy-to move up and down

There is no swim bladder in



Improved digestive gland

Digests fatty substance

stores glycogen(energy)

stores vitamins

processes toxins for removal by excretory system

Gall bladder

stores bile made by liver then releases into small intestine when needed

Digestive system



cardiac stomach

pyloric saeca


functions of stomach

add acid and digestive juices

starts digestion

grind food

functions of intestine

First section releaves bile from liver/gallbladder

finishes digestion

absorbs nutrients

collects and removes digestive waste


in intesine surface area of intestinal wall for greater absorption of nutrients

function of pyloric caeca

Contain microorganisms(bacteria) to break down enzymes

Function of Pancreas

Digestive function-makes tryspin for intestine

endocrine makes two harmones to regulate blood sugar

-Insuline-cells take up and store glucose

-glucagon-cells release storedglucose to blood

fuctions of the heart

ventricle-pumping chamber
oxygen poor boood comming from body enters sinus venosos(large vein)-enters atrium
ventricle pumps blood. conus arterlousus(artery)-to gills(loads oxygen)

function of spleen

produces new red blood cells

produces and destroys old worn out red blood cells

Stores RBC's for release when neeeded

Function of Kidney

collects and removes nitrogenous waste(ammonia)

asmoregulation- manintain water/ion balence

Urinary bladder

Stores urine made by kidneys