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65 Cards in this Set

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How do animals exchange heat with the environment?





How can physiological and behavioral adjustments help an animal thermoregulate?

1.adjusting rate of heat exchange between animal and its surroundings

2.cooling by evaporation

3. Behavioral responses

4.changing rate of metabolic heat production

5.relaxation of homeostasis

Adjusting rate of heat exchange between animal and surroundings


Circulatory changes/ adaptations


- vasoconstriction

- countercurrent heat exchage

Cooling by evaporative heat loss

Panting or throat flutter

Sweating or bathing, licking skin

Behavioral response

Posture and body orientation relative to sun during baking

Seeking shelter


Changing rate of metabolic heat production

Increased skeletal muscle activity and non shivering thermogenesis

Why do animals produce nitrogenous wastes?

Water balance and waste disposal

What are the different forms it takes in different animals ?

Ammonium: most aquatic animals; extremely toxic and not energy costly

Urea: mammals, amphibians, lungfish, sharks; mildly toxicity and energy use

Uric acid: birds, many reptiles, land snails, insects; not very toxic. costly in energy

How can cartilaginous fish like sharks be hyperosmotic relative to seawater?

Water enters shark's body by osmosis rather than by drinking. They balance osmotic uptake of water by excreting urine

Salt leaves through rectal glands

Osmoregulate like other marine fish

Differences of osmoregulation in freshwater and saltwater

Freshwater: hyperosmotic water gain through gills, excretion of large amounts of water, uptake of salt ions and water by gills

Saltwater:hypoosmotic, gain of water and salt ions from food, osmotic water lose through gills, excretion of salt through gills and urine, small amount of water lost to urine

What are some of the adaptations of terrestrial organisms that are related to osmlregulation?

Structural: protective outer layers; water recyclers

Drinking and eating moist foods

Behavioral adaptations

Excretory organ adaptations that conserve water

Basic mammalian kidney function






Functional unit consisting of a glomerulus that filters blood, a single long tubular conduit in which chemical composition of filtrate is altered and its associated capillaries

How does ADH work. Why does alcohol consumption typically result in more frequent trips to bathroom?

Antidiuretic hormone; release triggered when osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus detect increased blood osmolarity, enhance fluid retention by making kidneys reduces blood flow to medulla reclaim more H2O

Alcohol inhibits release of ADH causes frequent trips to bathroom and dehydration

What are some of the different kinds of kidneys of vertebrates that are related to the species habitat?

Desert mammals: very long loops of Henle

Aquatic mammals: have nephrons with very short loops of Henle

Freshwater fish: have nephrons that use cilia to sweep large volumes of dilute urine

Bony marine fishes: excrete very little concentrated urine

Reptiles: have only cortical nephrons and produce isoosmotic urine

What are some animals that have supplementary salt secreting glands?

Sea turtles: lachrymal

Sea snakes: sublingual

Crocodilians: lingual

Lizards: nasal

Birds: nasal

Difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?

Asexual: production of offspring whose genes come from one parent without the fusion of egg and sperm

Sexual: production of offspring by fusion of gametes from a male and female to form a diploid zygote

What are some of the different ways animals reproduce asexually?

Fission: separation of parent into two individuals of equal size

Budding: new individual splits off from existing one

Release of specialized cells: that grow into new adult

Fragmentation: breaks into several pieces


Favorable conditions

Development of egg without fertilization

Advantages of asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction

Asexual: animal living in isolation can reproduce without finding a mate, no cost of meiosis. Production of many offspring in a short time, perpetuates stable genosites in stable environment

Sexual: genetic variation, allows for genetic mutation to be weeded out

What is unusual about the genetics of sex determination in Hymenopteran insects

Males: haploid, develop from unfertilized eggs

Females: diploid, develop from fertilized eggs


Individual produces eggs and sperm

Advantageous for animals that may have difficulty finding members of opposite sex

Sequential hemaphrodite

Sex change

Protogynous: female to male

Protandroua: male to female

Difference between external or internal fertilization

External: eggs shed by female and fertilized by male's sperm in the environment

Internal: sperm deposited in or near female reproductive tract and fertilization occurs within female's body

What are the functions of the male and female reproductive anatomy in mammals?

Male: production of male gametes, transfer of sperm to female reproductive tract

Female: production of female gametes, house embryo and fetus

How are male gametes produced?

Produced in seminipherous tubules

Spermatogenesis: production of mature sperm cells

Primordial germ cell undergoes mitotic division

Primary spermatocyte(diploid) undergoes first meiotic division

Secondary spermatocytes (haploid) undergo second meiotic division

Spermatids( haploid) become sperm cells ( haploid)

How are female gametes produced?

Produced in ovary

Oogenesis: development of ova

-Begins in embryo when primordial germ cells undergo mitotic divisions to produce diploid cells

- each oogonium develops into primary oocyte by the time of birth

- between birth and puberty, primary oocytes enlarge and their surrounding follicles grow

-after puberty, with each cycle, FSH stimulates a follicle to enlarge and its primary oocyte completes meiosis 1 to produce a haploid secondary oocyte and first polar body. Meiosis then stops again

-LH triggers ovulation and secondary oocyte is released from follicle

- if sperm cell penetrates secondary oocyte's membrane, meiosis 2 will occur and second polar body will separate from the ovum.

Differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis

Spermatogenesis: four products of meiosis 1 and 2 become mature spermatozoa

- continuous process through male's reproductive life

- occurs uninterrupted

Oogenesis: unequal cytokinesis that produces 1 ovum and polar bodies

- all potential ova present in ovaries at female's birth

- long pauses occur between initial steps and final production of ovum

Difference between primary and secondary sex characteristics

Primary: directly associated with reproductive system Ex. Genitalia

Secondary: indirectly associated with reproduction ex. Hair, vocal tone

What is estrous?

The period of sexual activity surrounding ovulation

If pregnancy does not occur , endometrium reabsorbed by uterus

What is a menstrual cycle?

If pregnancy does not occur, endometrium shed from the uterus

Where does fertilization occur in the reproductive tract in human females?

Oviduct / fallopian tubules

What are FSH, LH, progesterone, and estrogen? How does the fetus prevent menstration?

Hormones that work together to coordinate menstrual and ovarian cycles

Secrets HCG which endometrium intact

What are some recent hypotheses on morning sickness, maternal investment in the developing fetus?

Mother- fetal discord

Father-mother discord and genetic imprinting

Morning sickness protects fetus from toxins in certain foods

Fetus most susceptible during first trimester

Preeclampsia: high blood pressure that damages kidneys such that protein lost from urine

What are the three major functions of the nervous system?

Sensory input: conduction of signals from sensory receptors to integration centers of the nervous system

Integration: sensory info interpreted and associated with appropriate responses

Motor output: conduction of signals from processing center to effector cells that carry out body's response to stimuli

What are the three major functional classes of neurons?

Sensory neurons: convey info about external and internal environments from sensory receptors to CNS

Interneurons: integrate sensory input and motor output

Motor neurons: convey impulses from CNS to effector cells

What are glial cells? What are their function?

Structural reinforcement, protection, insulation, and assistance to neuron

Do not conduct impulses

Out number neurons 10- to 50 fold

Basic structure of a neuron. Difference between an axon and dendrite

Cell body: cytoplasm, nucleus, and other organelles

Dendrites: convey signals to cell body; recent data indicates that they engage in some info. processing

Axons: conduct signals away from cell body

Schwann cells: wrap axons and form insulating myelin sheath

Synaptic terminals: release neurotransmitters at synapses

Basic structure of a neuron. Difference between an axon and dendrite

Cell body: cytoplasm, nucleus, and other organelles

Dendrites: convey signals to cell body; recent data indicates that they engage in some info. processing

Axons: conduct signals away from cell body

Schwann cells: wrap axons and form insulating myelin sheath

Synaptic terminals: release neurotransmitters at synapses

What are the elements of a reflex arc? What is a divergent circuit? Convergent curcuit?

Reflex arc: simple circuit that goes from stimulus, sensory neuron, Motor neuron, Muscle

Divergent curcuit: spreads out to several host synaptic neurons

Convergent curcuit: multiple synaptic neurons cone together onto one

Reverberate: signal returns to host ( cyclical)

What is the sodium - potassium pump and how is it important on maintaining the functioning of neurons?

Ion gradient, counteracts diffusion, uses ATP, regulates amount of Na and K in cell allowing cell to work in a stabilizing condition

Resting state

Depolarizing phase and rising phase of AP

Resting state

Repolarizing phase.


Return to resting stage

*What are the effects of a stimulus may have on a neuron?

Hyperpolarized: movement of k+ down concentration gradient Depolarization: movement of Na+ down concentration gradient

Action potential: threshold reached, movement of Na+ down concentration gradient

The basics of how an action potential is triggered and a nerve signal is conducted along the length of a neuron

AP regenerated at each position along the cell membrane

Unidirectional wave of depolarization

Refractory period prevents back propagation of AP

*How can the rate of signal transmission be increased in invertebrates and vertebrates?

Vertebrates: increase temperature


How does the neuron encode the strength of a stimulus?

Strong stimulus yields high frequency rate of AP

Weak stimulus yields low frequency rate of AP

What are the two ways a signal can be transmitted between neurons?

Electrical synapses:

-APs spread directly from pre- to postsynaptic cells via gap junctions

- impulses travel from cell to cell without delay or loss of signal strength

*Chemical synapses:

Synaptic cleft separates pre and post synaptic cells

- relies on diffusion of neurotransmitter from presynaptic to postsynaptic membrane

What are the possible functions of sensory system receptors?

Tactile sensations such as touch, pain, and temperature. Vision, hearing, smell, and taste

Collect information concerning body position and the physical conditions of these locations

Basic structure of vertebrate and insect eyes. What are some differences in their vision?

Insect: compound eye

Has individual facets, ommatidia(lenses) . They have low resolution and high "flicker fusion" frequency, polarized light sensitivity

Human: simple chambered eye

Sclera: tough outer layer of connective tissue

Choroid: vascularized pigment layer

Iris/ pupil

Cornea: transparent part of sclera

Lens: focusing

Ciliary body: muscle that deforms lens

High resolution, near and far sighted

What are the different ways the vertebrate eye can be focused?

Near vision( accommodation)

Distance vision( refraction)

How is it that we can distinguish different colors?

Cones in our eyes

Contain photoreceptors

Multiple subclasses of cones

How do photopigment molecules respond to light?

absorbing light

pigment made of:

-Retinal( vitamin A derivative)

-Protein: opsin

How can the ear allow us to discriminate among different frequencies of sound?

Sound waves produced by displacement of some medium (series condensation and rarefactions)

Pressure change

What are the main parts of the outer, middle, and inner ear?

Outer: funneling and filtering

-Pinna: mobile on some species

-Tympanic membrane: channeled sound to eardrum

Auditory canal

Middle: 3 small bones amplify and transmit vibrations




Inner: oval window vibrations, pressure waves in fluid inside canals of cochlea, vibrations of cochclear duct, basilar membrane and organ of Corti

What is an ecosystem?

System of interacting and interdependent living (biotic) and non- living ( physical, abiotic) components occupying a particular unit of space.

What is a biome?

A major regional community of plants and animals with similar life forms and environmental conditions

a group of related ecosystems may be called biome

What aspects of climate are most important in determining where particular biomes are located on earth?

Latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of biome distribution over Earth's surface

Why are conservation biologists so concerned about saving tropical rainforests?

They account for 7% of the Earth's surface, 90% of world's organisms, 45% of world's vascular plant species, 45% of the world's vertebrates

Most nutrients tied up in vegetation and soils are nutrient poor


- logging, burning,

- clearing for grazing and agriculture

- extirpation of wildlife ( hunting)

What is the structure of a typical food chain?

Eating pathway through which energy containing organic material and nutrients move

Producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers

What is a food web?

A collection of interconnected food chains

What is the relevance of the 2nd Law of thermodynamics to ecology?

Every energy transformation increases the entropy of the universe

- energy in the form of heat is lost with every transformation (= less usable energy.)

Accordingly, the amount of useful energy decreases when energy is converted from 1 form to another

What are the major ways human activities are impacting on the species diversity of the planet?

-Reduction in total area of habitat

- apportionment of remaining habitat into smaller, more isolated patches

- creation of edge between original habitat and altered habitat

Over exploitation

Invasive exotic species( increased mortality rates)

Climate changes

What is the greenhouse effect?

Heat trapping by earth's atmosphere

How might the biota of the earth be impacted by climate change?

Increased flooding

Rising sea levels

Reduction of biomes further north and south

Different crop sources

Advantages of osmoregulator and osmoconformer

Osmoregulator: can adjust to environment

Ex. Salmon adjust to salt concentrations

Osmoconformer:less energy costly

Disadvantages of osmoregulator and osmoconformer

Osmoregulator: more energy costly

Osmoconformer: unable to adjust to enviroment