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65 Cards in this Set

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How do animals exchange heat with the environment?

Convection


Conduction


Radiation


Evaporation

How can physiological and behavioral adjustments help an animal thermoregulate?

1.adjusting rate of heat exchange between animal and its surroundings


2.cooling by evaporation


3. Behavioral responses


4.changing rate of metabolic heat production


5.relaxation of homeostasis


Adjusting rate of heat exchange between animal and surroundings

Insulation


Circulatory changes/ adaptations


-vasodilation


- vasoconstriction


- countercurrent heat exchage

Cooling by evaporative heat loss

Panting or throat flutter


Sweating or bathing, licking skin

Behavioral response

Posture and body orientation relative to sun during baking


Seeking shelter


Migration

Changing rate of metabolic heat production

Increased skeletal muscle activity and non shivering thermogenesis

Why do animals produce nitrogenous wastes?

Water balance and waste disposal

What are the different forms it takes in different animals ?

Ammonium: most aquatic animals; extremely toxic and not energy costly


Urea: mammals, amphibians, lungfish, sharks; mildly toxicity and energy use


Uric acid: birds, many reptiles, land snails, insects; not very toxic. costly in energy

How can cartilaginous fish like sharks be hyperosmotic relative to seawater?

Water enters shark's body by osmosis rather than by drinking. They balance osmotic uptake of water by excreting urine


Salt leaves through rectal glands


Osmoregulate like other marine fish

Differences of osmoregulation in freshwater and saltwater

Freshwater: hyperosmotic water gain through gills, excretion of large amounts of water, uptake of salt ions and water by gills


Saltwater:hypoosmotic, gain of water and salt ions from food, osmotic water lose through gills, excretion of salt through gills and urine, small amount of water lost to urine

What are some of the adaptations of terrestrial organisms that are related to osmlregulation?

Structural: protective outer layers; water recyclers


Drinking and eating moist foods


Behavioral adaptations


Excretory organ adaptations that conserve water

Basic mammalian kidney function

Filtration


Reabsorption


Secretion


Excretion



Nephron

Functional unit consisting of a glomerulus that filters blood, a single long tubular conduit in which chemical composition of filtrate is altered and its associated capillaries

How does ADH work. Why does alcohol consumption typically result in more frequent trips to bathroom?

Antidiuretic hormone; release triggered when osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus detect increased blood osmolarity, enhance fluid retention by making kidneys reduces blood flow to medulla reclaim more H2O


Alcohol inhibits release of ADH causes frequent trips to bathroom and dehydration

What are some of the different kinds of kidneys of vertebrates that are related to the species habitat?

Desert mammals: very long loops of Henle


Aquatic mammals: have nephrons with very short loops of Henle


Freshwater fish: have nephrons that use cilia to sweep large volumes of dilute urine


Bony marine fishes: excrete very little concentrated urine


Reptiles: have only cortical nephrons and produce isoosmotic urine

What are some animals that have supplementary salt secreting glands?

Sea turtles: lachrymal


Sea snakes: sublingual


Crocodilians: lingual


Lizards: nasal


Birds: nasal

Difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?

Asexual: production of offspring whose genes come from one parent without the fusion of egg and sperm


Sexual: production of offspring by fusion of gametes from a male and female to form a diploid zygote

What are some of the different ways animals reproduce asexually?

Fission: separation of parent into two individuals of equal size


Budding: new individual splits off from existing one


Release of specialized cells: that grow into new adult


Fragmentation: breaks into several pieces

Parthenogenesis

Favorable conditions


Development of egg without fertilization

Advantages of asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction

Asexual: animal living in isolation can reproduce without finding a mate, no cost of meiosis. Production of many offspring in a short time, perpetuates stable genosites in stable environment


Sexual: genetic variation, allows for genetic mutation to be weeded out

What is unusual about the genetics of sex determination in Hymenopteran insects

Males: haploid, develop from unfertilized eggs


Females: diploid, develop from fertilized eggs

Hermaphrodite

Individual produces eggs and sperm


Advantageous for animals that may have difficulty finding members of opposite sex

Sequential hemaphrodite

Sex change


Protogynous: female to male


Protandroua: male to female

Difference between external or internal fertilization

External: eggs shed by female and fertilized by male's sperm in the environment


Internal: sperm deposited in or near female reproductive tract and fertilization occurs within female's body

What are the functions of the male and female reproductive anatomy in mammals?

Male: production of male gametes, transfer of sperm to female reproductive tract


Female: production of female gametes, house embryo and fetus

How are male gametes produced?

Produced in seminipherous tubules


Spermatogenesis: production of mature sperm cells


Primordial germ cell undergoes mitotic division


Primary spermatocyte(diploid) undergoes first meiotic division


Secondary spermatocytes (haploid) undergo second meiotic division


Spermatids( haploid) become sperm cells ( haploid)

How are female gametes produced?

Produced in ovary


Oogenesis: development of ova


-Begins in embryo when primordial germ cells undergo mitotic divisions to produce diploid cells


- each oogonium develops into primary oocyte by the time of birth


- between birth and puberty, primary oocytes enlarge and their surrounding follicles grow


-after puberty, with each cycle, FSH stimulates a follicle to enlarge and its primary oocyte completes meiosis 1 to produce a haploid secondary oocyte and first polar body. Meiosis then stops again


-LH triggers ovulation and secondary oocyte is released from follicle


- if sperm cell penetrates secondary oocyte's membrane, meiosis 2 will occur and second polar body will separate from the ovum.

Differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis

Spermatogenesis: four products of meiosis 1 and 2 become mature spermatozoa


- continuous process through male's reproductive life


- occurs uninterrupted


Oogenesis: unequal cytokinesis that produces 1 ovum and polar bodies


- all potential ova present in ovaries at female's birth


- long pauses occur between initial steps and final production of ovum


Difference between primary and secondary sex characteristics

Primary: directly associated with reproductive system Ex. Genitalia


Secondary: indirectly associated with reproduction ex. Hair, vocal tone

What is estrous?

The period of sexual activity surrounding ovulation


If pregnancy does not occur , endometrium reabsorbed by uterus

What is a menstrual cycle?

If pregnancy does not occur, endometrium shed from the uterus

Where does fertilization occur in the reproductive tract in human females?

Oviduct / fallopian tubules

What are FSH, LH, progesterone, and estrogen? How does the fetus prevent menstration?

Hormones that work together to coordinate menstrual and ovarian cycles


Secrets HCG which endometrium intact

What are some recent hypotheses on morning sickness, maternal investment in the developing fetus?

Mother- fetal discord


Father-mother discord and genetic imprinting


Morning sickness protects fetus from toxins in certain foods


Fetus most susceptible during first trimester


Preeclampsia: high blood pressure that damages kidneys such that protein lost from urine

What are the three major functions of the nervous system?

Sensory input: conduction of signals from sensory receptors to integration centers of the nervous system


Integration: sensory info interpreted and associated with appropriate responses


Motor output: conduction of signals from processing center to effector cells that carry out body's response to stimuli



What are the three major functional classes of neurons?

Sensory neurons: convey info about external and internal environments from sensory receptors to CNS


Interneurons: integrate sensory input and motor output


Motor neurons: convey impulses from CNS to effector cells

What are glial cells? What are their function?

Structural reinforcement, protection, insulation, and assistance to neuron


Do not conduct impulses


Out number neurons 10- to 50 fold

Basic structure of a neuron. Difference between an axon and dendrite

Cell body: cytoplasm, nucleus, and other organelles


Dendrites: convey signals to cell body; recent data indicates that they engage in some info. processing


Axons: conduct signals away from cell body


Schwann cells: wrap axons and form insulating myelin sheath


Synaptic terminals: release neurotransmitters at synapses

Basic structure of a neuron. Difference between an axon and dendrite

Cell body: cytoplasm, nucleus, and other organelles


Dendrites: convey signals to cell body; recent data indicates that they engage in some info. processing


Axons: conduct signals away from cell body


Schwann cells: wrap axons and form insulating myelin sheath


Synaptic terminals: release neurotransmitters at synapses

What are the elements of a reflex arc? What is a divergent circuit? Convergent curcuit?

Reflex arc: simple circuit that goes from stimulus, sensory neuron, Motor neuron, Muscle


Divergent curcuit: spreads out to several host synaptic neurons


Convergent curcuit: multiple synaptic neurons cone together onto one


Reverberate: signal returns to host ( cyclical)

What is the sodium - potassium pump and how is it important on maintaining the functioning of neurons?

Ion gradient, counteracts diffusion, uses ATP, regulates amount of Na and K in cell allowing cell to work in a stabilizing condition


Resting state


Depolarizing phase and rising phase of AP


Resting state


Repolarizing phase.


Undershoot


Return to resting stage



*What are the effects of a stimulus may have on a neuron?

Hyperpolarized: movement of k+ down concentration gradient Depolarization: movement of Na+ down concentration gradient


Action potential: threshold reached, movement of Na+ down concentration gradient

The basics of how an action potential is triggered and a nerve signal is conducted along the length of a neuron

AP regenerated at each position along the cell membrane


Unidirectional wave of depolarization


Refractory period prevents back propagation of AP

*How can the rate of signal transmission be increased in invertebrates and vertebrates?

Vertebrates: increase temperature


Invertebrates:

How does the neuron encode the strength of a stimulus?

Strong stimulus yields high frequency rate of AP


Weak stimulus yields low frequency rate of AP

What are the two ways a signal can be transmitted between neurons?

Electrical synapses:


-APs spread directly from pre- to postsynaptic cells via gap junctions


- impulses travel from cell to cell without delay or loss of signal strength


*Chemical synapses:


Synaptic cleft separates pre and post synaptic cells


- relies on diffusion of neurotransmitter from presynaptic to postsynaptic membrane


What are the possible functions of sensory system receptors?

Tactile sensations such as touch, pain, and temperature. Vision, hearing, smell, and taste


Collect information concerning body position and the physical conditions of these locations


Basic structure of vertebrate and insect eyes. What are some differences in their vision?

Insect: compound eye


Has individual facets, ommatidia(lenses) . They have low resolution and high "flicker fusion" frequency, polarized light sensitivity


Human: simple chambered eye


Sclera: tough outer layer of connective tissue


Choroid: vascularized pigment layer


Iris/ pupil


Cornea: transparent part of sclera


Lens: focusing


Ciliary body: muscle that deforms lens


High resolution, near and far sighted

What are the different ways the vertebrate eye can be focused?

Near vision( accommodation)


Distance vision( refraction)


How is it that we can distinguish different colors?

Cones in our eyes


Contain photoreceptors


Multiple subclasses of cones

How do photopigment molecules respond to light?

absorbing light


pigment made of:


-Retinal( vitamin A derivative)


-Protein: opsin

How can the ear allow us to discriminate among different frequencies of sound?

Sound waves produced by displacement of some medium (series condensation and rarefactions)


Pressure change

What are the main parts of the outer, middle, and inner ear?

Outer: funneling and filtering


-Pinna: mobile on some species


-Tympanic membrane: channeled sound to eardrum


Auditory canal


Middle: 3 small bones amplify and transmit vibrations


Stapes


Incus


Malleus


Inner: oval window vibrations, pressure waves in fluid inside canals of cochlea, vibrations of cochclear duct, basilar membrane and organ of Corti

What is an ecosystem?

System of interacting and interdependent living (biotic) and non- living ( physical, abiotic) components occupying a particular unit of space.

What is a biome?

A major regional community of plants and animals with similar life forms and environmental conditions


a group of related ecosystems may be called biome

What aspects of climate are most important in determining where particular biomes are located on earth?

Latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of biome distribution over Earth's surface

Why are conservation biologists so concerned about saving tropical rainforests?

They account for 7% of the Earth's surface, 90% of world's organisms, 45% of world's vascular plant species, 45% of the world's vertebrates


Most nutrients tied up in vegetation and soils are nutrient poor


Threats


- logging, burning,


- clearing for grazing and agriculture


- extirpation of wildlife ( hunting)

What is the structure of a typical food chain?

Eating pathway through which energy containing organic material and nutrients move


Producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers

What is a food web?

A collection of interconnected food chains

What is the relevance of the 2nd Law of thermodynamics to ecology?

Every energy transformation increases the entropy of the universe


- energy in the form of heat is lost with every transformation (= less usable energy.)


Accordingly, the amount of useful energy decreases when energy is converted from 1 form to another

What are the major ways human activities are impacting on the species diversity of the planet?

-Reduction in total area of habitat


- apportionment of remaining habitat into smaller, more isolated patches


- creation of edge between original habitat and altered habitat


Over exploitation


Invasive exotic species( increased mortality rates)


Climate changes

What is the greenhouse effect?

Heat trapping by earth's atmosphere

How might the biota of the earth be impacted by climate change?

Increased flooding


Rising sea levels


Reduction of biomes further north and south


Different crop sources

Advantages of osmoregulator and osmoconformer

Osmoregulator: can adjust to environment


Ex. Salmon adjust to salt concentrations


Osmoconformer:less energy costly

Disadvantages of osmoregulator and osmoconformer

Osmoregulator: more energy costly


Osmoconformer: unable to adjust to enviroment