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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Aboral vs oral side

Aboral side up, tube feet on ground

Oral side up, tube feet exposed upward

What are Grantia spicules?

Needles of calcium carbonate

What is the purpose of Grantia spicules?

They provide structural support and deter predators.

Hydra classification

Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Class: Hydrozoans

Hydra body plan

Radically symmetrical polyp

Hydra mouth and tentacles

Back (Definition)

Planarian classification

Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Platyhelminthes

Class: Turbellaria

Planarian auricles And eyespots

Back (Definition)

Planarian mode of nutrition

During feeding, a muscular, tubelike pharynx extends out from the mouth and sucks food

Rotifer classification

Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Rotifera

Rotifer corona, foot, and toe

Back (Definition)

Cnidarian classification

Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Cnidaria

Cnidarian body plan

Back (Definition)

Porifera sponge classification

Phylum: Porifera

Porifera osculum and ostia

Back (Definition)

Class Anthozoa

Sea anemones, coral, and sea fans

Solitary (anemones) or colonial (coral) polyps that lack a medusa stage

Classification of all animals

Domain: Eukarya

Kingdom: Animalia

Supergroup: Opisthokont

Class Scyphozoa

Marine jellies

Mouth surrounded by tentacles

Rhopalia (clusters of sensory cells on edge of “bell”)

Phylum Cnetophore diversity

Comb jellies

8 rows of comb-like plates of fused cilia


Bilateral symmetry

2 tentacles covered with colloblasts

Grantia xs

Back (Definition)

Porifera body plan

Outer epithelium: water comes in ostia and exits osculum

Mesohyl: gelatinous matrix, spicules, spongin, amoebocytes

Choanocytes: collar cells, flagellated to circulate water, engulf food from passing water

Porifera diversity


Cnidaria diversity and body plan

Corals jellies hydras anemones

Radial symmetry


Class Hydrozoa

Hydroids, hydra, Portuguese man of war

Most have both polyp and Medusa stage (polyp often colonial: Portuguese man of war)

Platyhelminthes diversity

Flatworms dorsoventrally flattened



Parasitic or free living

Incomplete digestive tract

No circulatory system

Excretory system

Simple nervous system

Sexual reproduction


Platyhelminthes mode of nutrition

Only one opening, pharynx

Metabolic wastes usually excreted into gut, eliminated through mouth

Platyhelminthes scolex

Class cestoda: tapeworms

Parasitic, adult attaches to wall of host intestine using scolex

Phylum nematode diversity



Parasitic or free living



Complete digestive tract

No circulatory system

Sexual reproduction

Subphylum Chelicerata

Sea spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, spiders, and mites

Body has 2 tagmata: cephalothorax and abdomen

6 pairs of appendages: Chelicerae- one pair as pincers or fangs. Pedipalps- one pair for sensing, feeding, or reproduction. Walking legs- 4 pairs

Subphylum Crustacea

Crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimps, barnacles, pillbugs

2 pairs of antennae

3 or more pairs of legs

Appendages are biramous (branch in two)

Subphylum Myriapoda

Millipedes and centipedes


Head with antennae and jaw-like mandibles

Trunk with legs

Subphylum Hexapoda


Live in most terrestrial and freshwater habitats

3 tagmata: head, thorax, abdomen

Undergo metamorphosis: incomplete and complete

Phylum Echinodermata diversity

Sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers

Exclusively marine


Endoskeleton of calcium plates

Class Asteroidea

Sea stars and sea daisies

Tube feet with suction cups

Have 5 arms or multiples of 5

Can regenerate lost arms

Class Echinoidea

Sea urchins and sand dollars

Lack arms

Double rows of tube feet

Protective moveable spines

Phylum Mollusca

Gastropods, bivalves, cephalopods

Class gastropoda

Internal fertilization

Limpets, snails, slugs, nudibranch

Head with pair of tentacles with eyes

Coiled shell


Torsion: visceral mass rotates 180 degrees during development

Class Cephalopoda

Squid, octopus, nautilus

Active predators

Closed circulatory system

Highly developed nervous system

Class Bivalva

Clams, scallops, mussels, oysters

No radula or head

Have two shells (valves) hinged together (adductor muscles counter hinge ligament)

Suspension feeders

Water enters through inhalant siphon and exits through exhalant siphon

Class Polyplacophora


Shell of 8 dorsal plates

Grazing herbivores

No head

Phylum Annelida diversity

Segmented worms

Earthworms, leeches

Class Polychaeta

Clamworms, scaleworms, lugworms, sea mice, tubeworms

Paired parapodia on segments

Class Oligochaeta

Earthworms, leeches

Clitellum found in all members

Few chaetae

Phylum Anthropoda

Most successful animals


Jointed appendages


Segmentation, exoskeleton, jointed appendages

Clam recognize anatomy:

Gills, mantle, siphon, foot, adductor muscle, umbo, foot

Back (Definition)

Clam gill function

Exchange gases and trap food

Clam mantle function

Secretes the shell and acts as a respiratory organ

Clam siphon function

Usually water enters the mantle cavity through the inhalant siphon, moves over the gills, and leaves through the exhalant siphon.

Clam foot function

Enables the clam to burrow itself in mud or sand