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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Function of the Digestive System

To bring essential nutrients into the body so that they are available to each cell

What is ingestion?

Food is taken in

What is digestion?

The breakdown of complex nutrients into simple nutrients

Mechanical digestion

Movements of the digestive tract; changes digested food from large to small particles

Chemical digestion

Changes in chemical composition of food as it travels through the digestive tract


Digestive enzyme aids in chemical digestion


Movement of nutrients into internal environment

- most absorption occurs in the small intestine


Excretion of material that is not absorbed

Amylase (saliva)

Enzyme that begins digestion of starches

Pepsin (gastric juice)

Begins the digestion of proteins

Main organs of the digestive system

- Mouth

- Pharnx

- Esophagus

- Stomach

- Small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ilium)

- Large intestine:

- Cecum

- Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid colon

- Rectum

- Anus

Layers of the digestive canal

- Mucosa

- Submucosa

- Muscularis

- Serosa

Three parts of a tooth

- Crown

- Neck

- Root

Types of teeth

- Incisors

- Cuspids

- Bicuspids

- Tricuspids

Two types of saliva

- Serous; watery, contains enzymes

- Mucus; thick, no enzymes

Salivary glands

Parotids; produces serous

Submandibular; mixed serous/mucus

Sublingual; produces mucus



- Connects pharynx to stomach

- Main canal for food

- Food enters stomach via LES (cardiac sphincter)

Cardiac Sphincter

Aka Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES)

Combines esophagus with stomach

Pyloric sphincter

Separates pyloris (lower stomach) from the duodenum

Divisions of the small intestine

- Duodenum

- Jejunum

- Ileum


Largest gland

Mostly on right side

Secretes bile


- Hepatic

- Cystic

- Common bile

Hepatic duct

Drains bile from liver

Cystic duct

Duct by which bile enters and exits the gallbladder

Common bile duct

Formed by union of hepatic and cystic ducts

Drains bile from ducts to duodenum


Located underneath the liver

Concentrates and stores bile


Exocrine gland that lies behind stomach

Pancreatic cells secrete pancreatic juice into pancreatic ducts

Carbohydrate digestion

Mainly in small intestine

Maltase - changes maltose to glucose

Sucrase - changes sucrose into glucose

Lactase - changes lactose into glucose

Protein digestion

Starts in stomach, finishes in small intestine

Pepsin - partially digests proteins

Trypsin - continues digestion of proteins

Peptidases - completes digestion of proteins and converts into amino acids

Where does mechanical digestion occur?

In the mouth and stomach

Where does chemical digestion occur?

The mouth, stomach, and small intestine (duodenum)

What are the layers of the GI tract?

1) Mucosa

2) Submucosa

3) Muscularis

4) Serosa

Name two plexuses of the GI tract

1) Enteric

2) Myenteric

Where do the cystic duct and hepatic duct combine in order to form the common bile duct?

Combine in the gallbladder - leads to duodenum

What are the digestive enzymes?

- Amylase

- Pepsin

- Trypsin

- Lipases

- Peptidases

- Sucrase

- Lactase

- Maltase

What is the most abundant product of carbohydrate digestions?


What are the salivary glands? Which is the largest?

Parotid (largest)



What are the functions of the urinary system?

- Excretes wastes

- Regulates chemicals in blood

- Maintains water balance

- Regulates blood pressure

Parts of a kidney

- Cortex

- Medulla

- Pyramids

- Papilla

- Pelvis

- Calyces

Microscopic parts of a kidney

Renal corpuscle

- Bowman's capsule

- Glomerulus

Renal Tubule

- Proximal convoluted tubule

- Loop of Henle

- Distal convoluted tubule

- Collecting tubule

Where are the pyramids located within the kidneys?

Renal cortex

Hormone that absorbs salt


What is suspension, retention, incontinence?

Suppression - No urine produced, but bladder is normal

Retention - Urine produced but not voided

Incontinence - Urine is voided involuntarily

Definition of glycosuria

Excess of glucose (sugar) in the urine

Where do filtration, retention, and excretion occur?

Filtration - renal corpuscles

Retention - renal tubules

Excretion - distal and collecting tubules

Male essential reproductive organs


Female essential reproductive organs


Percent of semen secretions

Seminal vesicles - 60%

Prostate gland - 30%

Bulbourethral - 5%

Structure of the testis

Seminiferous tubules

Structure of the uterus

Cervix, body, and fundus

Stages of the menstrual cycle

1) Menstrual phase (1-5)

2) Follicular phase (1-13)

3) Ovulation phase (14)

4) Luteal phase (15-28)

Definition of zygote

Fertilized egg cell