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52 Cards in this Set

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how is a hypothesis different from a conclusion

the hypothesis either supports or rejects the conclusion

what happens to the energy that is not passed on from 1 trophic level to the next

it is lost as heat

carbon moves through the environment in ways EXCEPT

the breaking down of dead plants and animals to release their carbon

an area that has similar climates and organisms

biome

any living part of an environment

biotic factor

this results when a pollutant is taken in by an organism and rather than be broken down stays in their tissues

biological magnification

acidic pH

pH 0-6

neutral pH

pH 7

basic pH

pH 8-14

the macromolecule that is primary component of cells

proteins

macromolecule that is primary component of cell membranes

lipids

macromolecule that forms protective padding around organs

lipids

enzymes are made from this macromolecule

proteins

the relatively constant internal physical and chemical state in a living cell and/or entire organism

homeostasis

typically smaller of the two type of cells

prokaryotic cells

animal cells

eukaryotic

bacteria

prokaryotic cells

plant cells

eukaryotic cells

does not have organized nucleus

prokaryotic cells

stores stuff like water,salts, proteins, and waste

vacuole

selectively permeable; only lets certain stuff in and out of the cell

cell membrane

shoots out spindle fibers to guide the chromosomes during cell division

centrioles

converts sunlight into energy through photosyynthesis and contains chlorophyll

chloroplast

breaks down worn out cell parts and waste; rare in plant cells

lysosome

contains the majority of the cells genetic information

nucleus

is usually very large and centrally located in plants cells; causes the plant to wilt if empty

vacuole

makes/assembles proteins

ribosome

converts food and oxygen into ATP, carbon dioxide, and water

mitochondria

forms a rigid outer shell around cell so when cells are stacked together they give the organism its shape

cell wall

the primary photosynthetic light-absorbing molecule in plants

chlorophyll

which of the following are the REACTANTS in photosynthesis

carbon dioxide and water

which are PRODUCTS in photosynthesis

oxygen and glucose

what do plant cells do

have organelles that perform both cellular respiration and photosynthesis

what is the formula for cellular respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 > 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy

cellular respiration creates ____ AP from 1 molecule of glucose

1

Active transport

Active Transport uses ATP to pump molecules AGAINST/UP the concentration gradient. Transport occurs from a low concentration of solute to high concentration of solute. Requires cellular energy. (endo/exocytosis)

Passive transport

Movement of molecules DOWN the concentration gradient. It goes from high to low concentration, in order to maintain equilibrium in the cells. Does not require cellular energy. (Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis)

molecules move from high to low concentration

passive transport

molecules move from low to high concentrations

active transport

hypotonic

the solution has a lower solute concentration than the cell so water moves into the cell causing plant cells to swell and animal cells to swell and burst

hypertonic

The solution has a higher solute concentration than the cell so water moves out of the cell and into the solution causing the cell to plasmolyze

isotonic

The concentration of solutes is equal inside and outside the cell so water moves across the membrane in both directions maintaining cell size

exocytosis

things go OUT (exitcytosis!!)

endocytosis

things go IN (INdocytosis)

diffusion

movement from high to low concentration

a nucleotide does not contain

an amino acid

stays in the nucleus in a eukaryote

DNA

in messenger RNA each codon specifies a particular

amino acid

the purpose is to reduce the ## of chromosomes to prepare cells for reproduction

meiosis

the purpose is growth and repair

mitosis

mitosis

duplicates DNA, division of body cells

meiosis

division of reproduction cells