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142 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Physical traits that distinguish Homo
-larger (over 500ccs) and more rounded braincase
-smaller, less prognathic face
-smaller teeth
-parabolic dental arcase
-increases in body size
-modern-style bipedalism
Behavioral traits that distinguish Homo
-foraging strategy (more dependent on animal protein)
-nature of foraging (hunters? scavengers?) up for debate
-greater ranging area (moving outside of Africa)
-more extra oral processing (processing of food with tools [cooking? pounding?] before eating it)
What people THINK are traits that characterize Homo (but they're wrong!)?
-large brain size (many had small brains)
-tool use (first tool use was Australopithecus gachi 2.5 mya)
Homo habilis 1470 (lies! liesss!)
Homo rudolfensis, 1.8mya

-brain size: 775ccs
-no real browridges above orbits
-large, flat face
-larger teeth

sympatric speciation with 1813: two different species in same geographic area in same time
Homo habilis 1813
Homo habilis, 1.8 - 1.9mya

-510 ccs
-moderate browridges
-small face, smaller teeth
-more ape-like postcranium

sympatric speciation with 1470: two different species in same geographic area in same time
Oldowan Industry
Oldest group.

2.5 - 1.5 mya

modified cores -> hit one rock with another, get sharp flakes

Tools: Hammerstone (stone in hand), anvil (stone on ground), microliths (chips that come off)

Indicators that they were being used: cut marks on surface of bone

Associated with early Homo.
Power scavenging versus passive scavenging
power scavenging = scare away larger animals that made the kill

passive scavenger = wait until hunter has gone away

Indicators: carnivore consumption species (which parts of carcass are eaten first)

Stealing tree-stored leopard kills?
Archeulean Industry
1.8mya - 250kya

Hand-axes (not found in Asia!)
Movius line divides distribution of hand-axes across old world (did they migrate out of Africa before invention?)

Flakes and bifacial (2-sided) tools

Associated with Homo ergaster and Homo erectus
Smaller stone 'blades' with long edges, made through a process that more efficiently produces sharp edges from a given core.
Early Stone Age (or Lower Paleolithic)
Oldowan and Acheulean (2.5mya - 250kya) together (ESA in Africa, lower paleolithic outside of Africa)
Type of Acheulean bifacial tool, usually oblong with a broad cutting edge on one end.
hand axe
Type of Acheulean bifacial tool, usually teardrop-shaped, with a long cutting edge.
Middle Stone Age and Middle Paleolithic (in middle pleistocene)
Levallois technique and organic wood tools!
Levallois technique
having a prepared core. modified the core so that flakes were knocked off were a specific shape.

-retouching: when a tool dulls, you can make it sharper.
middle stone age organic wood tools
-Schoningen, Germany 400kya
-long (6 - 7 feet) spears from tree trunk
-shorter, double-edged sticks (throwing spear?)
-smaller branches with grooves

Significance: could now hunt BIG game!
-500 - 400kya
-Evidence that tongue and eyes removed with tools
-projectile wounds in animal remains (throwing stick, spear, don't need to get close to the animal you're killing)
-butchery of animals in the prime of life (not limited to oldest and youngest animals)
-BUT, scavenging still very importante.
Significance of wooden tools in middle paleolithic
could now hunt BIG game!
-500 - 400kya
-Evidence that tongue and eyes removed with tools
-projectile wounds in animal remains (throwing stick, spear, don't need to get close to the animal you're killing)
-butchery of animals in the prime of life (not limited to oldest and youngest animals)
-BUT, scavenging still very importante.
Upper Paleolithic and Later Stone Age
All later anatomically modern humans and a few later Neandertals.

-blades: flakes twice as long as they are wide

-microliths: small, flaked tools most likely designed to be attached to wood or bone (including arrowheads)

-greater use of non-stone tools (bone, ivory, antler, and shell). they were ground, polished, and drilled to make harpoons, spears, awls, needles, and buttons
flakes that are twice as long as they are wide
Feature of Upper Paleolithic and Later Stone Age, 25kya. Small, flaked tools probably designed to be attached to wood or bones
a type of microlyth appearing for the first time around 13kya - 10kya
Anatomical features of Homo erectus
-large body and brain (900ccs average). Range between 700ccs and 1200ccs. Has not increased disproportionate to body size.
-uniquely-shaped skull
-more modern-like postcranium
-robust mandibles
-shovel-shaped invisors
-modern-like proportions (tall with long limbs)
Features of Homo erectus skull
-Very thick-boned
-low, long, and angular
-pentagon-shaped from the back

Cranial superstructures:

-VERY prominent browridges
-thickened angular torus
-occipital torus
-sagittal and metopic heels
Homo ergaster
early African forms, may be Homo erectus.

-1.8mya - 1mya

-less-pronounced browridges

-more gracile
H. erectus (in comparison to H. ergaster)
-refers to Asian forms
-1.8mya - .5mya
-more robust
-much thicker browridges
-more pronounced cranial superstructures
Where in the world is Homo ergaster?
Kenya 1.8mya
Tanzania 1.47mya - 780 kya
Ethiopia 1.8 - 1mya
Dmanisia 1.7mya
Where in the world is Homo erectus?
Indonesia 1.8mya - 50kya
China - 800kya - 200kya
Homo antecessor
Early Homo found in Europe about 800kya. They thought that it was H. erectus, but there's just too much damn variation!
Evidence of a more meat-reliant diet in H. erectus
a) More sophisticated tools
b) Hypervitaminosis A
c) Tapeworms, evolved 1.8mya, same as certain tapeworms in hyenas.
d) cooking? characteristic shape and color of burnt soil. 1.6mya hearths. they manipulated naturally-made fire.
e) Change in length of digestive tract (extensive tissue hypothesis!)
Hypervitaminosis A
Toxic condition when you get too much vitamin A. You get it from eating too much organ meat, especially liver meat.
1.8mya - 10kya
Early pleistocene
1.8mya - 900kya
Middle pleistocene
900kya - 125kya
Late pleistocene
125kya - 10kya
Homo heidelburgensis
People who say that archaic Homo sapiens need a species name, that's what they give it.
Archaic homo sapiens differences from H. erectus
1) Larger brains (1100ccs - 1390ccs)
2) Less angular skull (more parallel-sided, widest breadth of skull is placed higher)
3) Very pronounced supraorbital toruses (arching rather than straight)
Archaic homo sapiens differences from AMH
1) Have robust supraorbital tori
2) Larger faces
3) Thicker, lower (less globular) cranial vault
Dates and locations of archaic H. sapien finds...EUROPE!
Petralona: Greece, 150kya - 300kya (long, low cranial vault, pronounced supraorbital tori)
Steinheim cranium: Germany, 200kya - 250kya (pronounced broweidges, low/long skull)
Arago partial cranium: France 300kya - 600kya (arching browridges)
Swanscombe: England, 200kya - 250kya (back of skull, not as pronounced occipital tori)
Dates and locations of archaic H. sapien finds...AFRICA!
Bodu: Ethopia, 600kya (cutmarks on the orbital bone [cannibalistic? rituatlistic?], face flesh deliberately removed by stone tools)

Kabwe: Zambia, 125kya (HUGE motherfockin' browridges)

Ndutu: Tanzania, 200kya - 400kya (cranial capacity of 1100ccs)

Salé: Morocco, 200kya - 250kya (partial cranium, 900cc cranial capacity)
Dates and locations of archaic H. sapien finds...ASIA!
Dali: China, 130kya - 200kya (deformed skull)

Maba: China, 130kya - 200kya (same features)

Narmada Valley: India, 125kya - 150kya
Tools of archaic homo sapiens
middle paleolithic/stone age and organic wood tools
When and where are Neanderthals?
Where: Western Europe, central Asia, middle east, in caves (so they're wicked well-preserved)

When: Modern humans must have diverged about 300kya. Range is 300kya - 30kya
Anatomical adaptations of Neanderthals
*note: these are DERIVED features!

1) large brain size (1300ccs - 1600ccs)
2) Oval-shaped skull fromthe back (not pentagonal or parallel)
3) Occipital bun
4) mid-facial prognathism (really just around the nasal cavity. aside from this and browridges, really doesn't stand out that much.)
5) Large noses (well...wide nasal cavities. air you breathe in through nose gets warmed up through nasal cavity, warms up air before it hits your lungs)
6) Jaw/teeth [see another slide]
7) Postcrania (short and stocky, but VRY muscular. barrel-sized chest, and shorter, distal limb segments, which help conserve heat)
Allen's rule
In colder climates, the limbs of the body are shorter relative to body size to conserve body heat.
Jaw/teeth characteristics of Neanderthals
a) No chin
b) Really heavy anterior tooth wear (front teeth)
c) Tavrodont molars
d) retromolar gap (space between last molar and back of jaw...result in heavy dental use - jaw grows more with more chewing)
Tavrodont molars
All of the roots of molars fused together, prevents wear
Traumatic injuries in Neandertals
Fracture bones that healed over. Injuries most similar to rodeo riders. Got too close to prey? Fell down a lot when running after prey?
Did Neandertals interact with AMH?
90 - 110kya (2 sites), same space occupied by Neandertals and AMH. Were they there are different times of the year?
Cold-weather behavioral adaptations
a) DNA is only good within 30 - 40kya, and must be preserved in specific conditions
b) Evidence of use of controlled fire (hearths found in cave areas which are well-preserved)
c) Used animal skins and hides to cover themselves somehow (wind shelters and tends, pretty easy to make)
d) Probably moved southward when it was coldest
What did Neanderthals eat?
Meat. And a shit ton of it. Evidence of big-game hunting, cooking, hides, etc.
Cannibalism in Neanderthals
Ritual? Did they regularly eat one another?

-Mostly younger individuals
-Way that bones are cut and split open are very similar to way that animals were processed
Burying their dead! Neanderthal-style
Some say that they weren't intentional, but evidence goes the other way. Grave goods! Flowers, horns. Not consistent grave goods. Pollen could be from outside sources.
Replacement model
No substantial interbreeding.

Expectations: Localized in Africa, then spread out once all of the archaics and Neandertals died off. First AMHs in Africa, two distinct lineages in each part of the world, abrupt changes in technology, genetic evidence show little overlap.
Regional continuity model
Oh come on, it's basically been proven false.

Expectations: Only one evolving lineage in each region. Evidence of intermediate fossils, behavioral continuity, genetic analysis show some combination.
THE FACTS about the regional cont./replacement debate!
Location: Earliest AMH in Africa, 160kya. Then Israel, 110kya - 90kya (with neandertals!). Then Europe, 36kya. China, 65kya. Indonesia, 40kya. Australia, 50kya.

Archaeology: Earliest AMH found with middle stone age tools, used by archaic H. sapiens and neanderthals. BUT, mostly used upper paleolithic industry, and these appeared 30-40kya in Europe, simultaneous with AMH.

60kya in Africa, much later than first AMH (125, maybe microliths). Change in use of different resources. Increase use of marine life, and much more varied diet (more veggies than neandertals!)

Symbolic behavior: Explosion around 30-40kya in Europe. Indicate break in mental processes between AMH and archaic/Neandertal
What molecular genetics ahve to say about the replacement/regional cont. debate!
1) mitochontrial DNA. cloned from yo' mama, relatively constant mutation rate. Supports replacement model!

2) Nuclear DNA (ex. beta-globulin DNA), most recent common ancestor was 800kya. Doesn't support replacement, but same patter.

3) Ancient mtDNA. AMH genetically distinct from Neandertals. AMH and Neanderthals, most recent common ancestor was 800kya-300kya. BUT, difference between some chump subspecies is even greater!
Four lobes of brain
Frontal (38% of one hemisphere)
Parietal (25%)
Temporal (22%)
Occipital (9 - 10%)
The fissues of the brain!
Lateral fissure (Sylvius)
Central fissure (Rolando)
Transverse fissure
Brain stem
Portion of the brain that connects directly to the spinal chord. Connected for basic life functions: regulation/control of everything from here to next Tuesday (MEDULLA OBGLONGATAAAA)
That little grey thingy that I played with in physiology all the time last year. Important for balance, posture, and voluntary movements.
Divided into left/right hemispheres (NOT symetrical!)
Complexly-arranged grooves that divide brain into gyri (sing. gyrus). They are the result of brain expansion.
Grey matter
Forms outer surface of brain. Mostly containing cell bodies of neurons.
White matter
Mostly axons of nerve cells (myolin sheaths gives whitish appearance)
Corpus callosum
Forms connection between the two hemispheres
Primary cortex of the cerebrum
Functional areas. Involved in input from the senses or motor control. Motor regions in FRONTAL lobe. Sensory regions distributed throughout cerebrum.
Association cortex of the cerebrum
Processing of primary input occurs. Inputs from single or multiple areas. In human evolution, this is the thing that's most increased.
Language areas of the brain
1) Broca's Area
2) Wernicke's area
3) Angular gyrus
4) Primary auditory cortex
5) Motor strip
Broca's area
On frontal lobe. If damaged, speech production is hurt, not speech comprehension. Areas of white matter connect this to Wernicke's.
Wernicke's area
Both production of speech and comprehension. Areas of white matter connect this to Broca's.
Motor strip
Near Broca's area. Affects movement of tongue and mouth.
Primary auditory cortex
Necessary for speech perception
Angular gyrus
In parietal lobe. Important for comprehending written language.
Four defining elements of language
1) Language is spoken.
2) Language is semantic (we use words that have meanings)
3) Language is phonetic. Words are assembles from smaller sounds called phonemes. The phonemes themselves have no intrinsic meaning.
4) Language is grammatical.
How words are defined and used.
Syntax: rule of word order.
Universal Grammar View
Chomsky. "deep structure" is reflective of universal grammar mechanism in everyone's brain brain.

Evidence: Children can learn language really really quickly.
-Pinker: Genetic aspect. The "language instinct". Children are genetically specialized to learn language.
-Creole language: Merging of some languages, but they ALL have a similar grammar structure. In a linguistically unsable society, children impose their own grammatical rules (sign language in deaf Nicaraguan children).

But there is NO anatomical evidence for this specialization.
Emergent Grammar View
Commonalities among grammar are because there is a LIMITED NUMBER OF SOLUTIONS to the problem of creating syntax.

Grammar is a RESULT of complex language, not something genetic. Human language shows a continuity with other forms of animal communication.
Features of the Supralaryngial airway
1) Pharynx (cavity above larynx)
-nasopharynx - goes from nasal cavity
-oropharynx - goes from oral cavity
-laryngopharynx - right above larynx
Not-Brain Anatomical Features of Language
1) Larynx in lower position
2) Expansion of the pharynx
both of these allow for greater modification of the air that passes through the airway.
3) Shortening and rounding of the tongue. Can move it more quickly and more precisely.
4) Hyloid bone - tells us what position the tongue had, but since it doesn't connect to another bone, no way of telling where it sat (position of pig's hyloid v. similar to human's.)
Risk of these not-brain anatomical features of language
We have a higher likelihood of choking! Everything we swallow has to pass by an incompletely sealed larynx.
Discerning language in the fossil record
1) look at endocasts for signs of asymetry (very blunt tool)
2) Degree of flexion in cranial base tells us where larynx would have say, but NO conclusive evidence that this directly relates to larynx production.
Selective pressures for language
Not everything is an adaptation! Sometimes correlation.

1) Language as replacement for grooming. Humans live in HUGE social groups, and you can't groom everyone! Social group cohesion. Dunbar.

2) One-handed throwing ability. Handedness (right), language. Motor strip also controls throwing.
Encephalization quotient
Ratio of actual brain size to predicted brain size based on chart. An EQ of 1 means that brain is predicted size. GREATER than one means that brain is larger than predicted for a mammal of that size.

Humans have highest absolute brain size (1350 ccs) and highest EQ
Measures brain size relative to body size.
Meaning of EQ?
Doesn't show relative size of each lobe. Takes body size into account, which could reflect selective pressures on body size. Doesn't show brain USE. You're not getting at specific brain types (eg. males and females). Females use both halves of brain more than males.
Brain size in fossil record
-Difficult to determine body size (often only find fragments of postcrania)
-Don't see an increase in EQ until H. erectus, but we're only basing this off of specimens that we've found.
-Archaic H. sapiens, Neanderthals, and AMH all have about the same EQ (but remember the body size thing!)
Looking at brainz of ancient humanz
Reliant on stupid endocasts. Fairly poor depiction of what brain looks like, and you can't see the grooves because the brain is not in direct contact with the skull. BUT, it's all we've got. Fuckin' A.
Looking at structure and function of brainy bits
1) Autopsy studies (old way!)
2) Lesion method
3) Neuroimagery (MRI and PET and fMRI)
Lesion method
Looking for structural abnormality from behavior abnormality (stroke, brain trauma, etc.)

"natural experiments", have to wait for person with abnormality to die.

"unnatural experiments", cut out or damage portion of brain and see what happens while person is STILL ALIVE.
magnetic resonance imaging.

Good distinction between grey and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). High-res map of water concentration in the brain.
PET and fMRI
position emission topography and functional MRI

-shows area of brain that activates during certain cognitive acts
-measures increase in metabolism/blood flow
-difficult to do in non-human primates
-very expensive.
epidemilogical transition
the changes in patterns of disease and mortality in developed countries. 20th - 21st century, newer diseases are diseases of old age
The quantitative study of the occurrence and cause of disease in populations
evolutionary medicine
A Darwinian approach to understanding disease.
Design compromises
A principle of evolutionary medicine.

ex. knee joint is prone to injury if hit a certain way. S-curve of human back is good for bipedalism, but makes for bad backs. female pelvis is good for walking, not so good for babymakin' (midwifery is a cultural adaptation to this design compromise)
Environmental mismatch
A principle of evolutionary medicine.

Our bodies are adapted for a life of huntering and gathering. ex. obesity. Bodies are adapted to store fat really well, because there was not a lot of it in hunting and gathering. But now that we have lots of fatty food at our disposal, combined with not a lot of running after sabre-toothed tigers...
Pleiotropic gene effects
A principle of evolutionary medicine.

We have many genes and alleles that didn't used to do anything, or evolved to help us way back when. But as we get older, the effects of some genes come out in later life, and cause old-age diseases like cancer and Alzheimer's disease.
secular trends
1) height: children grow larger and heavier in each decade. reduction in childhood diseases impeding growth, and better nutrition.

2) menarche (beginning of menstruation): went from 16 - 17 years to 12 - 13 years. In Paupa New Guinea, age in 1960 was 18, in 1980 it was 15.8.

Why? Better nutrition, increased fat in diet, alteration in body composition, higher ratio of fat to muscle in early years
Stages of growth as broadly defined for primates
Human growth stages
Prenatal Stage of Development
Conception to birth
38 - 40 weeks in humans
Incredible rate of growth
very sensitive to environmental influence
Substances that can alter normal growth (ex. alcohol -> FAS)
Infantile Stage of Development
From birth to eruption of first baby tooth
Childhood Stage of Development
Begins at weaning (3 years), goes until adult brain size is achieved (6 or 7). Unique to humans? Allows for development of technical and social skills. Food provisioning by extramaternal kin.
Juvenile Stage of Development
From eruption of first permanent tooth to puberty. REALLY REALLY extended in humans!
Adolescent Stage of Development
Puberty to eruption of wisdom teeth (last perm. teeth). Growth spurts. Allows for difference in male/female maturation. Learning sociosexual roles.

Females: Look mature enough to learn how to deal with their role

Male: Don't want to show maturity, might be perceived as a threat by other males

Networks of connections in brain still growing. Health and illness affects the productive status (?)
Adulthood Stage of Development
Eruption of last permanent tooth until death.

old age = rate of cell death is higher than rate of cell replacement

long post-reproductive period in humans.
Effects and causes of aging: Physiological things
1) Accumulation of DNA mutations: DNA becomes damaged over time
2) Free radicals -> antioxidents
Effects and causes of aging: Evolutionary style
1) Pleiotropic antagonisms: multiple effects of one gene can happen over time. A good or neutral gene can have bad effects later in life.
2) Disposable Soma (body) theory: Bodies haven't evolved counter-strategies to battle aging after reproduction, because evolutionarily speaking, the body is useless when it can't reproduce.
3) Grandma hypothesis: Grandparents can help children raise their children. You can help rise your own reproductive success by encouraging your genes' development in your grandkids.
Variation in skin color: red
Oxidized hemoglobin in RBCs
Variation in skin color: yellowish
Variation in skin color: Light versus dark
Melanin, a dark ibgment in melanocytes, packaged in melanosomes.

1) melanosome size
2) density of melanosome
3) distribution iof melanocytes bearing keratinocytes
Evolutionary reasons for skin tone variation
1) Ultraviolet radiation. Causes sunburn and skin cancer. Can penetrate to DNA level and cause mutations. Melanin blocks incoming UV waves. People with more melanin are less susceptible to effects of UVR. So, people regularly exposed to more sun need more melanin to filter out the sun.

2) Vitamin D symthesis. People with darker skin can't synthesize vitamin D as efficiently. But it isn't an issue in places with lots of sunlight, because there's just so much damn sun that it doesn't even really matter. Lack of Vitamin D causes rickets.

3) Exposure to UVR in the dermis can cause breaking down of folic acid in the bloodstream. Deficiencies in folate during pregnancy can cause neutral tube birth defects in the embryo.
Behavior affecting diseases: migration
Bubonic plague. Migration to the New World, brought diseases like smallpox, influenza, measles, and ciertos STDs
Behavior affecting diseases: DIET
"the paleolithic diet" - lots of meats and fruits

BUT, obesity = shitty diet + lack of exercise.

Agriculturalism, thrifty genotype

Standing water and mad cow!
Individuals growing up under nutritional stress

Native Americans: heavy dependence on maize - enamel defects, stunted growth

Asia: over-reliance on white rice. beriberi - thiamene deficiency.

Modern Agriculturalism: nutritional excess (vitamins, supplements, etc.)
Thrifty Genotype
Hunter-gatherer lifestyle favored body types that converted extra energy to fat. Men gain fat in belly, women gain it in thighs and hips. Belly fat protects vital organs.

In past, opportunity for excess weight gain was so thin that this phenotype would never result.
Thrifty Pleitropic Genotype
Negative effects only come later in life, so they can't be selected against. Oh, that's so fucking sneaky.
Standing water and Agriculture
Malaria, schistosomasis.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
BSE, or mad cow disease.
Protein in brain called prions. When you consume mutant prions, they go craaazy. Brain begins to wear away. There is a very long latancy period.
Four Things of Evolution of Human Behavior
1) Paleontological reconstruction
2) Biocultural approach
3) Human behavior ecology
4) Evolutionary psychology
Paleontological reconstuction
-look at anatomy of hominin ancestors

-look at relative brain size, shape of brain (enlargement of frontal lobe), endocasts, sexual dimorphism

-interpret hominin anatomy by what we know about living primates (males twice the size of females. look at behavior of living rimates with lots of sexual dimorphism. Do groups range? Monogomous? Male/male competition?)
Biocultural approach
-takes a behavior, looks through different cultural lens, and see how it shapes adaptation and adaptability.
Human behavior ecology
-ecological and biological factors that influence reproductive success IN A CULTURAL CONTEXT.

-ex. relationship between wealth and reproductive success, sexual division of labor
Evolutionary psychology
-behavioral patterns shaped by natural selection in the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness
Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness. Environment in which modern humans evolved. In Africa, hunter-gatherer populations.

-use modern human hunter-gatherer populations to interpret behaviors.

-human sexual behavior shaped by natural selection? Video time!
Cognitive (human) universals
Cognitive phenomena such as sensory processing, the basic emotions, consciousness, motor control, memory, and attention that are expressed by all normal individuals
Cross-cultural universals
Behavioral phenomena, such as singing, dancing, and mental illness, that are found in almost all human cultures, but are not necessarily exhibited by each member of a cultural group.
forensic anthropology
study of human remains to identify the cause and manner of death. Different from a medical examiner because they deal with mostly hard tissue (bones and teeth)


-mass graves (past and present)
-crime scene investigations
-human rights abuses
How old are you?
-easier to tell with younger bodies.

1) overall size
2) bone fusion! epiphyses (end of a long bone) are unfused in young individuals. They all don't fuse at a constant rate, so you can tell by which ones have fused and which haven't.
3) Bone density. When estrogen stops being produced, bones lose tensity.
4) Signs of wear (arthritis)
5) Tooth loss! Bone around teeth responds to whether tooths are not there. Maxilla and mandible regress and resorb when teeth are not there.
6) Fontanelle (anterior) and metopic suture present in infants (soft spot! squishsquish)
7) Sequence of tooth eruption (eurgh)
8) traumatic events show up in teeth (birth line)
What sex art thou? Skull!
-males: larger, more robust. Thicker, more pronounced muscle markings. Have more developed browridges.
-females: more vertical forehead, frontal "bossing".

Chin: males have squared-off jaw, girls have rounded jaw.
What sex art thou? Pelvis!
female: Illiac blades are shorter and more rounded. Public synthesis, sub-pubic angle is noticeably greater. Broad sciatic notch. Elevated auricular surface (where pelvis articulate with sacrum. Stretching of certain ligaments if you've given birth. Preauricular sulcus.
What sex art thou? Femur!
Attachment for large thigh muscles, more developed in males.
How tall art thou?
Measure bone and plug it into formula based on population averages (general or sex-based)

There's always a range! Range of error depends on what bone you are measuring.
With which population dost though belong?
Big, big databases! Presence of metopic sutures, wormian bones, and dental arcade shape. All based on FREQUENCY and LIKELIHOOD.
premortem trauma
Trauma that has occured prior to death. Evidence of healed fractures on bones indicates that bone had time to heal before it died.
perimortem trauma
Trauma right around time of death. ex. bullet hole in skull. BUT, people can live! Look for signs of healing.
postmortem trauma
trauma after death. easily confused with perimortem
What does you look like?! Facial reconstruction!
1) Take cast of skull. Locate muscle markings. Look at sex and age. Look at markings on nose bone. Pile on muscle and fat, and add a layer of skin. Voilà!
2) Use a computer to do the same thing.

One skull can result in more than one structure!
How many people in a big pile of bones?
MNI - minimum number of individuals

Figure out what parts of body the bones came from. If there are two left femurs, or something, then there are at least two people. But if there is a right and a left, it could be one or two, so the MNI is one.
BUGZZZZZ, and when you died.
-life cycle of insects on or around body!

-details of different insect species. Which insects get to the body first? How established are they in certain areas? (you can tell if the body's been moved or something)

Gut contents exposed yield certain types of maggots -> soft tissue injury!

Beetles show up later than flies.

eggs -> feeding larvae -> wandering larvae -> pupae -> adult
WHO ARE YOU?! Chemical and molecular analysis
If you can extract DNA, compare with families of missing people. Chemicals helpful in poisoning! Show up in bones, fingernails, and toenails.