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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lytic Cycle
viral components synthesized, assembled, and released. Cell dies as a result
Vibrio cholerae, changes from nonvirulant to virulent when infected with a virus –Produces toxin that causes cholera
•Lysogenic Cycle
Virus infects bacteria and viral DNA integrates with bacterial DNA.
•Retroviruses are
RNA, animal viruses. They contain a special enzyme (Reverse transcriptase) which allows the genetic code of RNA to be copied (transcribed) to DNA. IU

•DNA is

then used to produce more viruses, as described earlier. •


•1. Retrovirusattaches to host cell.•2. Virus enters cell•3. Reversetranscription occurs•4. Host cell producesviral components (Biosynthesis)•5. Virus matures•6. New viruses arereleased••Cells do not die , lysogenic (latent) phase - canlast for years•Virus ruptures cellkilling it - leads to AIDS


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV) –Formerly infected only apes/monkeys –Mutation occurred allowing HIV to “jump” species –First reported in 1981


(severe acute respiratory syndrome) – outbreak in 2003, carried from SE Asia to Toronto, Canada

•West Nile encephalitis

– brought into US, infecting bird & mosquito poplulations


– 1993 outbreak, traced to deer mouse, transmitted to humans through fecal contamination Southwest US


– severe hemorrhaging & death (50-90% untreated). Outbreak confined to Africa

•Chicken pox

– spread through contact of infected person, vaccine 1995


– last case 1977, vaccination wiped out


– vaccine available, extremely contagious


– major killer – 1918, 44 million died


– Epstein-Barr virus, spread by infected saliva


– Infects CNS & leads to paralysis, often fatal. Vaccine has almost wiped it out

•Viruseslinked to causing cancer (15% viral cause)

•Hepatitis B – liver cancer; •Human papillomavirus (HPV) – cervical cancer


infectious protein particle –Smaller than a virus – rogue protein –Prions interact with normal proteins in the body & cause them to change shape

–Discovered: primitive tribe in Papua New Guinea that would eatdeceased person’s brain & developed disease kuru – fatal neurodegenerative disorder


•Thermoacidophiles –

found hot springs thermal vents, volcanoes (hot/acidic)

•Extremophiles –

–Methanogen – anaerobic environments •Use H2 to reduce CO2 to methane


– salt loving Found Great Salt Lake & Dead Sea


Bacteria •“true bacteria” •Most of the bacteria today •More common type of prokaryote


Possess: •single circular chromosome (located in the nucleoid) •No organelles (except ribosomes) •phospholipid bilayer (Cell Membrane) cell wall


Polysaccharide cross-linked peptide chains


like filament that allows bacteria to move


Photosynthetic structure YIU

Conjugation pilus (sex pilus)

- allows bacteria to share DNA (often plasmids)


bristle structures that allow bacteria to attach to surfaces

•Obligate Anaerobes

unable to grow in the presence of oxygen (botulism, gas gangrene & tetanus)

•Facultative anaerobes

– grow in presence or absence of oxygen D


– require oxygen (most bacteria)


– self feeders –Photoautotrophs (light/photosynthetic) –Chemoautotrophs (chemicals – hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide & ammonia)


– Chemoheterotrophs = organic nutrients

Saprotrophs –

breaks down large organic molecules into smaller one that can be absorbed (decomposers)


Bacteria & host benefit. –Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes bacteria in digestive tracts
Bacteria benefits, host unharmed (E. coli uses up available O2 in intestines, allowing obligate ananaerobes to live there as well)
Host is harmed –Pathogenic / diseases
•(1)Produce toxins &/or (2)adhere to surfaces and (3) may invade organs or cells 8H
•Bacillus (pl. bacilli) –
rod shaped –Coccobacilli, Pseudomonas
•Coccus (pl. cocci)
– round / spherical –Staphylococci, Streptococci
•Spirillum (pl. spirilli)
– helical-shaped –Spirillum volutans
thick peptidoglycan cell wall –purple when stained
–More common –Thinner peptidoglycan cell wall –pink when stained
•Formerly - blue-greenalgae (Gram-negative bacteria)•Photosynthetic•Introduced O2to primitive atmosphere•Some -fix nitrogen• food source foraquatic ecosystems•found - fresh water,soil, moist surfaces, hot springs•In association withfungi, they form lichensthat grow on rocks (symbiotic relationship: Cyanobacteria provides organic nutrients to fungus/Fungus providesinorganic nutrients
– Bacillus anthracis –Biological agent, flu-like symptoms, not contagious, treat w/ antibiotics
– Clostridium botulinum Caused by improperly canned foods, produces a toxin
•Cholera –
Vibrio cholerae –Found in areas of poor sanitation, digestive tract diseases
•Dental caries –
streptococcus –Caused by strep sticking to teeth, eating sugars, producing acid that rots teeth �UC�
•Leprosy –
Mycobacterium leprae –Called Hansens disease – skin lesions
•Lyme disease –
Borrelia bergdorferi –vector, - deer tick, bulls eye rash, joint pain, lethargy, treat w/ antibiotics
•Peptic ulcers –
Helicobacter pylori –Treat w/ antibiotics ))
•Plague –
Yersinia pestis –Bubonic plague –bite of flea, pneumonic plague – inhaled. Major killer
•Pneumonia –
Streptococcus –Respiratory disease –( Streptococcus also causes sore throat, rheumatic fever) Can be bacterial or viral 4
Mycobacterium tuberculosis –Respiratory infection, contagious, many strains are resistant to our antibiotics .
•Chlamydia –-
“Silent STD” Pelvic Inflamatory Disease (PID) – sterility []
can lead to PID and sterility
–appears as blister / sores –End stage results in heart disease, mental deficiency, nerve damage, loss of motor function, and blindnes
Importanceof Bacteria
•Responsible forcreating current atmosphere•Decomposers - carboncycle•Fixation of nitrogen(N2) – nitrogen cycle•Industry –vinegars,yogurts, cheese•Many antibioticsderived from bacteria•Cleanenvironmental pollutants –oil degradingbacteria