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71 Cards in this Set

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What species of fluke can cause blood to be passed in the unrine of humans?
Schistasoma haematobium
What two species of fluke tpically cause blood to be passed in the feces of humans?
Schistasoma manosoni and Schistasoma japonicum
What is the common name given to the Schistamsoma spp.?
Blood flukes
What stage in the life cycle of the Schistasoma spp. causes the passing of blood?
The egg
What three conditions must occur in order for Schistasoma spp. to occur?
1. Water polluted by human waste
2. The correct snail species
3. Human contact with the polluted water
What stage in the life cycle of trematodes is the end product of asexual reproduction?
Cercaria
What stage in the life cycle of the trematode is contained in the egg?
Miracidium
What term is given to the most anterior region of tapeworms?
Scolex
What term is given to the chain of proglottids that are immediatley behind the scolex?
Stromblia
What species are known as the beef tapeworm?
Taenia saginata
What is the definitive host of the beef tapeworm?
Humans
What is the intermediate host of the beef tapeworm?
Cattle
What stage in the life cycle of the beef tapeworm is infective to the host?
Cystercircus
What species of parasite can cause a disease known as cystercircercosis in humans?
Taenia solium (pork tapeworm)
Two species that are found in dogs and other canines that cause the Hydatid disease in humans are?
Echinococcus granulus and Echinococcus multilocularis
Give the nature of the hydatid cysts for the Echinococcus spp.?
Unilocular (E. granoulus) and Multilocular (E. multilocularis)
Give the respective distribution for the two US species of Echinococcus spp.?
Found in warm areas like the southwest (E. Granoulus) and fondin colder areas like the central northern states (E. multilocularis)
What species of parasites causes "Pipe Stems" disease in cattle?
Fasciola heptatica
What is the patholoyg associated with "Pipe Stem" disease?
Epithelial tissue becomes connective tissue in due to the large amount of damage and scarification to the muscle resulting in calcification of the muscle.
What species of parasites is known as the human liver fluke or the Chinese liver fluke?
Clonorchis sinesis
What is the second intermediate host of Clonorchis sinesis?
Carp
What species of parasites is known as the lung fluke of humans?
Paragonimus westermani
How does one diagnose for Paragonimus westermani (the human lung fluke)?
By finding an orange egg in sputtle
Give 2 organs outside the lungs that can be damage by Paragonimus westermani (the human lung fluke)?
The brain and liver
What group of parasites causes the condition known as "swimmers itch" in humans and what group of animals serve as the definitive host?
Schistsoma spp. whihc affects birds
What trematode species serves as a vector for the disease known as salmon poisoning?
Neophytus salmincola
Which host in salmon poisoning often fatal to?
Canines
What is the geographic distribution of salmon poisoning?
N. Russia, Pacific Northwest, Alaska, Siberia, and Western Canada
What species of fluke is found in the small intestine of humans?
Fascilopsis buski
What is the geographic distribution of Facscilopsis buski?
Asia
What two conditions are caused by Fascilopsis buski?
Intestinal blockage and verminous intoxication
What is the common host that modifies its behavior in Dicrocoelieum dendriticum?
Ants
What stage of the life cycle causes the modification of ants with the parasite Dicrocoelieum dendriticum?
Metacercaria
What organ of the ant is affected by the metacercaria of Dicrocoelieum dendriticum in ants and how?
The brain. The ants usually go into their colonies at night but ants infected will instead go to the highest part of a pasture and wait for morning when a cow will ingest them.
What term is given to the process of asexual reproduction that occurs in the liver of humans? (Be as specific as possible)
Exoerythrocytic schizogony
What is the end product of exoerythrocytic schizogony?
Meroziotes
What term is given to the process of asexual reproduction that occurs in the red blood cells? (Be as specific as possible)
Erythrocytic schizogony
What are two stages that circulate in the blod stream that must be taken up by a mosquito in order for the life cycle to continue?
Microgametocyte and macrogametocyte
What happens to microgametocytes and macrogameotcytes if they never enter a mosquito host?
They die
Give the genus of mosquito that serves as the definitive host for malaria?
Anapheles
What stage in the life cycle migrates form the gut of the mosquito to the hemocoel of the mosquito?
Ookinete
What stage in the life cycle is found in the salivary glandss of the mosquito?
Sporozoite
What species of malaria causes quatern malaria?
Plasmodium malariae
What species of the parasite causes Nantucket Fever in humans?
Babesia microti
List in order the four stages that are formed during the life cycle of Eimeria?
Trophozoite, schizont, segmenter, merozoites
What species of parasite causes "Texas Cattle Fever"?
Babesia bigemina
What is the vector for Babesia bigemina?
The Lonestar Tick
What species of parasites causes a condition known as Whirling Disease?
Myxobolus cerebralis
Give two hosts for Myxobolus cerebralis?
Rainbow trout and the Tubifex worm
What species use to be the primary species occuring in the United States and Western Europe?
Plasmodium vivax
What is the definitive host for Toxoplasma gondi?
Wild or domestic cat
Give two stages in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondi that occurs in humans? Which stage can cause problems when a woman is pregenant?
Bradyzoite and Tachizoite. Tachizoite can cause problems in a pregenant woman.
Give two of the most frequent methods by which a woman might contract Toxoplasmosis when she is pregenant?
Eating undercooked meat and ingesting a bradyzoite and by cleanig a litter box and ingesting an oocyst.
Give three conditions that can occur to a fetus when a woman contracts Toxoplasmosis for the first time when she is pregenant?
Abortion, still birth, mental retardation
What species of free living amoeba periodically becomes an accidental parasites causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis?
Naegleria fowleri
Where do Naegleria fowleri amoeba most frequently occur when they are free living? (Give habitat where they are particularly abundant)
Soil and water (a swamp)
What is the disease caused by Ichtyopthirius mutlifilis?
"Ich"
What is the common host for Ichtyopthirius multifilis?
Freshwater tropical fish
What species of malaria is the most common malaria in the world today?
Plasmodium falciparum
What species of malaria is the most rare malaria in the world today?
Plasmodium ovale
Why is Plasmodium malariae called quatern malaria?
Because it last 72 hours plus the day of infection.
What process in the life cycle of malaria begins in humans but ends in mosquitos?
Gametogony
What is the end product of gametogony?
Ookinete
Where does the sporozoite of malaria go once it enters humans?
The liver
Give a common means that is currently being used to control against mosquito contact with humans in geographic areas where malaria is present?
DDT pesticides
Give a genus of parasite that causes a disease known as Coccidiosis?
Eimeria
Parasites of the Eimeria genus commonly infect which system of the definitive host?
The digestive system
What stage in the life cycle of Coccidians leaves of the definitive host?
Oocyst
What process in the life cycle of Coccidians occurs outside of the definitive host?
Sporogony
Hosts can build immunity against Coccidians and this is maintianed through "low level" infection. What term is given to this type of immunity?
Preminition
Give two stages or processes in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondi that can occur in humans?
Proliferative stage and cystic stage