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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1) CO2 is mainly dissolved in __of___as ___(___)
2) A few CO2 can bind to __of ___(___)
3) veins do not ALWAYS carry ___or___but always___
4) arteries do not ALWAYS carry ___or___but always ___
5) ___goes through the left ventricle, aorta, body tissues, anterior vena cava (send body from upper body tissue to the right atrium)/ posterior vena cava (send blood from lower body tissue to right atrium), right atrium, right ventricle
6) ___goes through right ventricle, pulmonary artery, , lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, and left ventricle
7) systolic blood pressure is ___when left/right ventricles ___ and diastolic pressure is ___when left/right ventricles ___.
8) ___have the highest blood pressure and ___have the lowest blood pressure
9) the left/right atrioventricular valves closes during ___to produce the ____(___). The right/left semilunar valves close close during ___to produce the ____(___)
1) water; blood plasma; HCO3- (bicarbonate ions)
2) hemoglobin; red blood cells (erythrocytes)
3) oxygen poor blood or oxygen rich blood; send blood back to the heart
4) oxygen rich blood or oxygen poor blood; receive blood from the heart
5) systemic circuit
6) pulmonary circuit
7) 120mmHg; contract; 80mmHg; relax
8) arteries; veins
9) systole; first heart sound (Lubb sound); diastole; second heart sound (Dubb sound)
1) know how to calculate blood volume from body weight (and plasma volume)
2) what are the functions of the lymphatic system?
1) weight in kg X 8% = # of liters of blood (1 lb =.45kg); note plasma is over 50% of blood, usually 55%
2) drainage; absorption (fat); delivery of pathogens
1) brain receptors are extremely sensitive to ___and only __can double breathing rate
2) ___with no smell and color binds to ___ of ___more tightly than ___
3) only a few amount of CO ___because almost all __binds to ___(___) in the body
1) CO2; 0.3%
2) CO2; hemoglobin; erythrocytes; O2
3) kills people; hemoglobin; CO2 (not O2)
1) there are different ___
2) grasshoppers use __for respiration
3) planarians (___) and earthworms use ____for respiration
4) humans use ___for respiration
5) 2 common features: these surfaces are ___&___
1) respiratory surfaces
2) tracheae
3) (flatworms); body surfaces
4) lung (alveoli)
5) moist; make gas exchange by diffusion
1) Inhalation makes diaphragm___and go ___to___chest volume, ___lung pressure to suck air into the lung
2) Exhalation makes diaphragm___and go___to ___chest volume, ___lung pressure
3) ___ (___)is the lung volume when you breathe normally; however, it can be changed during ___
4) ___is the minimum amount of remaining air in the lung no matter how hard you exhale
5) ___is openings into tracheal tubes. ___affects the gas exchange of insects by ____
6) ___lining respiratory tubes send ___containing dusts and bacteria ___to___. Mucus enters __and then ___
1) contract; downward; increase; decrease
2) relax; upward; decrease; increase
3) tidal volume (capacity); exercise
4) residual volume
5) spiracle; oil-water spray; blocking spiracles
6) cilia; mucus; upward; pharynx; esophagus; stomach
Body Defense
1) monocytes differentiate into ____
2) ___bombard parasites
3) ___engulf foreign cells
4) ___are the least abundant WBCs
5) ___are the most abundant WBCs (___)
1) macrophage
2) eosinophils
3) neutrophils
4) basophils
5) neutrophils (leukocytes)
Body Defense:
1) injured tissues stimulate ___and make ___produce __to promote ___ (___) during ___(____).
1) basophils; mast cells; histamine; vasodilation (increasing vessel diameter); inflammation (second defense line)
Body Defense:
1) bone marrow produces___
2) T cell maturation happens in the ___
3) B cell maturation happens in the ____
4) __tissue produce antibacterial enzyme ___in tears (___defense line)
5) epithelial tissue can also be ___, lining of organs and cavities and forms ___like ___
1) leukocytes (WBCs), erythrocytes (RBCs) and platelets (all kinds of blood cells)
2) thymus
3) bone marrow
4) epithelial; lysozyme; (non-specific first)
5) body surface; glands; lysozyme
Body Defense:
1) two unique animal tissue: ___
2) ___decreases vessel diameter to maintain ___of __in ___
3) ___are antigen presenting cells (APC) and send foreign antigens to its cell surface by ____ (___)
4) Receptors and co-receptors (__to enhance the interaction between receptors and foreign antigen) on helper T cell surface recognize foreign antigens specifically (foreign antigen recognition)
1) muscle and nervous tissue
2) vasoconstriction; body temperature; endotherms; cold areas
3) macrophages; MHC II (foreign antigen presentation)
4) CD4
Body Defense:
1) macrophages secrete ___ to activate ___, which secrete ___and ___to activate (1)___ (2)___(3)___
2) Infected body cells are also ___and use ___to do foreign antigen presentation
3) Receptors and co-receptors (__) on cytotoxic T cells recognize foreign antigens and activate __itself
4) Activated cytotoxic T cells use ___to make pores in infected cell membrane and __infected cell directly via ___
5) ___in the second defense line also use perforin to make pores in _cells and ___cells (notice: the target cell is __ from cytotoxic T cell and the attack is ___)
6) activated B cells become ___, which produce ___(____) to inactivate foreign antigens by ____,____, ___(these three enhance phagocytosis and activation of complement protein (induce cell ___) via ___
1) interleukin-1; helper T cells; interleukin-2; cytokines; helper T cell; cytotoxic T cell; B cell
3) CD8; cytotoxic T cell
4) perforin; kill; cell-mediate immunity
5) Natural killer cells (NK); tumor; virus-infected; different; non-specific
6) plasma cells; antibodies (immunities); neutralization, agglutination, precipitation; lysis; humoral immunity
Internal Environment:
1) __is a special adipose tissue in infants
2) __can be converted to heat directly without ___
1) brown fat
2) brown fat; ATP production
Internal Environment:
1) which animals use ammonia?
2) which animals use urea?
3) which animals use uric acid?
1) most aquatic animals
2) mammals
3) birds, insects, reptiles
Internal Environment:
1) ___is a hormone to increase the permeability of water in ___and___, so more water reabsorbed into ___. When you walk on desert, your body will produce more ___to keep __in your blood (reduce ___)
1) ADH; distal tubule; collecting duct; circulatory system; ADH; water; water loss