• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
functions of the skin
Protection of deeper tissues
Vitamin D synthesis
Temperature regulation
stem cells
- divide and push other cells up towards the surface
- responsible for keratinocyte production
- great majority of epidermal cells
- synthesize keratin
- occur only in the Stratum Basale
- responsible for skin color
tactile (merkel) cells
- associated with nervous system
- responsible for touch
dendritic (Langerhans) cells
- Immune cells
- IDs strain of bacteria that enters cell and tells lymphocytes in order to fight it
- in S. Spinosum and S. Granulosum
stratum corneum
- up to 30 layers of dead cells
- form durable surface layer
- resistant to abrasion, penetration, and water loss
stratum lucidum
- thin layer (see through)
- only found in thick skin
- keratinocytes are densely packed with ELEIDIN
stratum granulosum
- 3-5 layers of flat keratinocytes
- keratinocytes contain course, dark-staining Keratohyalin granules
stratum spinosum
- thickest layer in most skin
- deepest cells are still capable of mitosis but dividing is ceased
- flatter cells higher up
stratum basale
- contains single layer of cells
- outermost layer
layers of dermis
Papillary layer

Reticular layer
papillary layer
- areolar tissue
- rich in small blood vessels
- allows for movement of WBs and other defenses against organisms introduced through breaks in the epidermis
reticular layer
- dense irregular connective tissue
- when COLLAGEN fibers are torn = stretch marks
Most significant factor in skin color?
True or False:
All shades of skin color contain the same number of melanocytes
blueness of the skin resulting from a deficiency of oxygen in the circulating blood
abnormal redness of the skin
pale or ashen color that occurs when there is so little blood flow through the skin that the white color of the dermal collagen shows through
genetic lack of melanin
yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes resulting from high levels of bilirubin in the blood
Hematoma (bruise)
mass of clotted blood showing through the skin
dermal papilla
- fingerlike extensions of the dermis
- provides hair with nutrition
hair matrix
where hair undergoes growth immediately above the papilla
hair receptors
nerve fibers that entwine each follicle and respond to hair movement
arrector pili muscle
- contracts to make hair stand up when stimulated
- helps in cold to lower heat loss
- also used in communication
hair follicle (2 layers)
Epithelial Root Sheath (developed in epidermis)

Connective Tissue Root Sheath (developed in dermis)
parts of hair
In skin: Hair bulb, Hair root
Outside skin: Hair shaft
Inside the hair: Medulla, Cortex, Cuticle
Describe the nail
- highly keratinized cells (hard)
- nail bed: where nail grows
- nail matrix: growth zone
- nail plate: the entire nail
- lunule: base of the nail
Name the two Cutaneous glands
Merocrine (Eccrine) Sweat Gland

Apocrine Sweat Gland
Merocrine (Eccrine) Sweat Gland
- Narrow lumen; Duct opens to skin surface
- Secretes by exocytosis
- Widely distributed over the entire body
- Function in evaporative cooling
- Simple tubular gland
- Ex: salivary gland
Apocrine Sweat Gland
- "Scent" gland
- Large lumen; Duct conveys to hair follicle
- Secrete whole cell as cell disintegrates
- Sex pheromones
- Ex: oil gland in skin