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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Results when isolated populations reconnect and produce viable offspring
Hybrid Zones
Areas of overlap where interbreeding of separate species occurs. The viability of the hybrid increases the hybrid zone
Genetic change is continuous and it slowly accumulates through time. Lots of transitional forms
Punctuated Equilibrum
Change in genetics occurs in short bursts. There exists long periods of little genetic change. Predicts that new species will appear rapidly
Fossil Records support?
Punctuated Equilibrum
Molecular Data supports?
Evolutionary-Developmental biology
where paleontology, anatomy, developmental biology, molecular biology, and genetics attempt to explain rapid development of new body plans
Hox Genes
Specific genes the regulate body development. Acts like a switch board to turn genes on and off. Hox genes are controlled by other regulatory genes
Cambrian Explosion
Major radiation of multicellular animals at the beginning of the paleozoic era. Almost every modern phyla appears during this time.
Hox Genes Continued
More Hox genes = more complex body. Gene duplication mutations produce more Hox genes (paralog)
Mutations and Hox Genes
Can cause changes in body structure. Ex: Ubx gene causes wings to grow in different thoracic segments on insects
Arise from developmental and molecular evolution
A result of gene duplication
Regulatory Gene mutation examples
Gremlin gene in chickens and ducks for webbed feet. Ubx in insect wings. D11 expression in fish vs. limb buds
Allometric Growth
differences in growth rates. Ex: chimp vs. human skull growth
Retention of juvenile characteristics in adults. Ex: copepod crustaceans
Orthologs continued
Eyeless genes in flies and Pax6 gene in mice. Transplant of pax6 gene into a fly caused eye growth
An evolutionary history for a group of organism.
Populations through time
Diverged lineage
extinct or still living species
Common ancestor of all organisms in the tree
more than 2 groups emerge from a node
Sister Taxa
Groups that occupy adjacent branches linked by a node
Taxon that diverged prior to a most ancient node of a tree
Clade taxa that are the closest related
Ancestor and all of the descendants (good)
Group of species with different common ancestors (bad)
Paraphyletic Group
group with common ancestors, but only some of its descendants (bad)
Adaptive Radiations
Represents a period of rapid speciation. Colonization, morphological innovation, and mass extinctions
Habitat unoccupied by competitors is colonized by a species. Ex: Hawaiian islands and rose finches
Morphological Innovation
New innovations all for new resources to be exploited. Ex: Flowers, feathers, mouth part modifications.
Tools used to create phylogenies
Fossil Records
Molecular Biology (DNA)
Physical trace of an organism that lived in the past.Organically preserved in amber, compressed carbon film, casts, permineralization
Fossil Limitations
Habitat Bias, Taxonomic flaw, temporal bias, abundance bias
Habitat bias
Burrowing organisms and soft bottom organisms more likely to make fossils
Taxonomic Flaw with Fossils
Organisms with hard parts more likely to leave fossils that soft animals like sponges and slugs
Temporal Bias
Older organisms less likely to leave fossils
Abundance Bias
More numerous organisms are more likely to leave fossils
Molecular Clock
Neutral mutations are used to estimate the time of divergence for lineages. In non-coding DNA
Flaws with the Molecular Clock
Some species have very quick generatoins. Mutations can be affected by the environment. Species mutate at different rates. Reverse mutations are possible
Examples of using the Molecular Clock
Short term analysis-introns of mitochondrial DNA. High rate of change.
Long Term Analysis-Short subunit of RNA. Slowly changes, conserved pieces of DNA