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38 Cards in this Set

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Cell cycle must coordinate
Growth of cell
Duplication of organelles
Duplication of DNA
Duplication of centrosomes (MTOC)
Mitotic spindle apparatus
Chromosome condensation/decondensation
Chromosome separation
Nuclear envelope breakdown/assembly
Cytokinesis (cell division)
Cytokinesis
cell division
In the cell cycle, G1G2 stands for
gap or growth
In the cell cycle, S stands for
DNA synthesis
In the cell cycle, M stands for
mitosis
quiescence
G0 phase where the cells are not dividing
G1 + S + G2 =
interphase
In the cell cycle, R stands for
restriction point
hydrogen-3
tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen
In the discovery of _____,
Radioactive tritium, or ³H, was incorporate into ______
S phase; thymidine
Grow cells in ³H _____→ If DNA is replicated then ³H-T is incorporated into ____, and therefor the _____ becomes radioactive.
thymidine ; DNA; nucleus
Pulse-chase experiment
1) Put a mixture of cells in ³H thymidine for 30' (thirty minutes), then wash away the ³H thymidine
2) After 1 hr only a subset of cells had radioactive nuclei.
3) After five hours a few labeled (labeled = tritium incorporated) cells have condensed chromatin (which is a sign of beginning to enter mitosis).
4) After 6 hours labeled cells enter mitosis.
Mitosis in a typical human cell takes ____ hours
1-2
G1 in a typical human cell takes ___ hours
8 hours
S in a typical human cell takes ___hours
8 hours
G2 in a typical human cell takes -___hours
5 hrs
What are the 6 Stages of mitosis?
1) prophase,
2) prometaphase,
3) metaphase,
4) anaphase,
5) telophase,
6)cytokinesis
prophase
chromosomes condense
Centrosomes migrate and begin to assemble the spindle
prometaphase
nuclear envelope breaks down
Attach to the spindle
metaphase
Chromosomes align at the equator
anaphase
sister chromoatids simultaneously separate and are puled slowly towards the spindle poles.
telophase
chromosomes at the poles begin to decondense
The nuclear envelope begins to reform
cytokinesis
cells pinch in two by action of microfilaments and their motors
Nuclear lamins
found inside nuclear envelope and form meshwork

phosphates added and they fall apart.
Chromosome condensation
DNA + proteins form chromatin
nucleosome
consist of 8 proteins call histones
DNA wraps how many times around nucleosome?
Two
How many base pairs from the beginning of one nucleosome to the next.
200
Sister chromatids are held together at the _____
centromere
______hold chromatids together at the _____
cohesins ; centromere
Spindle apparatus
microtubules coming out from each side, many of which overlap or come down and grab the end of the cell
kinetochore
a protein plaque at the centromere that captures mictrotubules

contains MT motor proteins
Astral microtubules
grab edge of the cell

stick out towards edge of cell
Polar microtubules
at middle-cell

come across and connect past the midpoint, overlapping.

Often motor proteins that sit in between them that can push them apart.
microtubules that attach to kinetochore are called
kinetochore microtubules
Minus ends of microtubules are ____
buried at the pole

Minus ends of MT in MTOC (microtubules organization center)
What's special about Drosophila eggs?
12 cycles of nuclear division without cytokinesis
Rapid division of nuclei
20 – 30 minutes
No G1 or G2, only M and S
What was done in the dropsophila egg experiment?
Into the eggs he injected a chemical called DAPI (blue fluorescent that binds DNA)
Also injected tubulin labeled with green fluorescent