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115 Cards in this Set

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The standard disinfectant against all others are measured
phenol
- taken off market (in PhisoHex - prescription only) Very effective against Staph.
hexachlorophene
surgical scrub approved by FDA
chlorhexidine
mouthwash, topical antiseptic and throat logenzes.
hexylresorcinol
most widely used antibacterial in household products

Pathogen Paranoia” in modern times: “The Only Good Microbe is a Dead Microbe.”
triclosan
destruction of all living organisms and microorganisms
STERILIZATION
killing
CIDAL
inhibits growth; doesn't kill
STATIC
mechanical removal of bacteria
SANITIZATION
bacteriostatic only
dessication
mechanical denaturation of enzyme proteins
Hydrostatic high pressure processing
“Pressure has a uniform effect on everything inside the pressure vessel.”
Pascals law
used on physical surfaces
Disinfectant
used on living tissues
antiseptic
contamination by microorganisms
sepsis
free of contaminating microorganisms
aseptic
Hungarian physician in mid 1800's
-one of first to use disinfectants.
-urged all doctors to use it.
-He was largely ignored.
Semmelweis
a British physician in late 1800's who worked to reform surgery to use antiseptic techniques.
Lister
active ingredient in nearly 1/3 of all commercial antimicrobioal chemicals
halogens
most widely used disinfectant for 200 yrs.
-used for disinfection of drinking water (06-1.0ppm), wastewater and sewage.
-kills bacteria, spores, viruses and fungi
chlorine
side effects of chlorine can cause?
cancer
are the most widely used all-around disinfecting products e.g. household bleach
Hypochlorites
are derivatives of pure chlorine used for drinking water more commonly now – safer than chlorine.
Chloramines
more germicidal than chlorine
iodine
used in public drinking water and for treatment of teeth
fluride
thimerosal– no longer used as preservative in vaccines (used since 1929) since it has been linked with possible autism in children who received vaccines preserved with it
mercury
Used as silver sulfadiazine ointment added to bandages.
-Silver ions incorporated into hard surfaces to control microbial growth (toilet seats, stethoscopes, etc.
silver
Pharmacological action: React with proteins and inactivate them. Non-competitive inhibitors of enzyme systems.
heavy metals
Pharmacological action: strong dehydrating agent at 100%; dissolves lipid cell membranes of bacteria and coagulates proteins in alcohol/water dilutions.
alcohols
% ethyl alcohol has greatest effectiveness
70%
Pharmacological action: toxic to cells due to superoxide formation; even bacterial catalase cannot destroy amount used for disinfection. - foaming action in tissues also mechanically cleans.
hydrogen peroxide
also used for disinfection of water and air - similar action.
Ozone (O3)
Pharmacological action: cross link and inactivate proteins.
aldehydes
Surfactants disrupt the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and cause cell leakage.
detergents
(non-charged) - most normal detergents - not very bacteriocidal - only mechanical removal
nonionic
(- charge) - also limited bacteriocidal properties - mechanical removal
anionic
- also called the quarternary ammonium compounds ("Quat")
-These disrupt cell membranes and precipitate proteins of bacteria.
-commonly used in food processing environments for sanitation and disinfection (non-toxic).
cationic
-gas used for sterilizing items that cannot be autoclaved.

-“chemiclave”

Pharmacological action: cross links DNA and proteins.
Ethylene Dioxide gas
Used to decontaminate Congress after contamination with mail containing Bacillus anthracis spores.

-Spotlight on Microbiology

Pharmacological action: disrupts proteins.
Chlorine Dioxide gas
Drugs synthesized in the laboratory. Goal: To kill harmful agent and not harm host.
Chemotherapeutic drugs
Father of chemotherapy
Paul Ehrlich
- Synthesized the drug Salversan to kill Treponema pallidum - the spirochaete that causes syphillis in 1910.

- It contained arsenic - toxic, but effective. Eventually discontinued for less toxic drugs.

- Was not well received by public; no more chemotherapeutic advances for 20 years.


"Witchcraft to Wonder Drugs"
Paul Ehrlich
-Synthesized first chemotherapeutic drug to cure syphillis. Not accepted. Society felt that anyone with syphilis deserved it.

-He also had the first theory of how antibodies were produced and functioned.
Paul Ehrlich
Synthesized in latter 1930's by Domagk. Used to treat wounds in WWII.
sulfa drugs
Pharmacological action: Competitive inhibitor (analog - looks like it) of PABA needed to synthesize the B vitamin folic acid. (folic acid is necessary for synthesis of nucleic acids.)
sulfa drugs
First chemotherapeutic agent to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis and leprae. Largely replaced by rifampicin (synthetic mycin from Streptomyces)

Pharmacological action: interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Isoniazid (INH)
(quinine derivatives - Ciprofloxacin)
- very potent and broad spectrum
Fluoroquinones
-used to treat Human herpes virus types 1 and 2
Pharmacological action: purine base (adenine and guanine) competitive inhibitor or analog (looks like them); interferes with DNA synthesis
Acyclovir (Zovirax)
-used to treat severe life-threatening cases of RSV in infants.
Pharmacological action: guanine analog or competitive inhibitor. Interferes with viral RNA synthesis.
Ribavirin
-used to treat AIDS
Pharmacological action: blocks reverse transcriptase (RT) of retroviruses - AIDS; a thymine analo
AZT (zidovudine
- a naturally occurring biological metabolite of microorganisms that is inhibitory or lethal to other microorganisms.
antibiotic
effective against a wide variety of G+ and G- bacteria.
broad spectrum antibiotic
The “Father of modern Microbiology: 1920's discovered penicillin from Penicillin mold.
Sir Alexander Fleming
Not purified and manufactured until WWII by Florey and Chain
(got N.P. with Fleming).

- first used in WWII
Penicillins
Pharmacological action: prevents synthesis of peptidoglycan in cell wall of rapidly growing G+ bacteria. (Blocks incorporation of peptide links.)


Bacteriocidal. Not toxic to humans but may be allergenic.
penicillin
naturally occurring from Penicillium fungus - Penicillium chrysogeum.
(NOT BROAD SPECTRUM - G+ only)
Penicillins G and V
- synthesized by changing side chain in natural penicillin molecule.

“A Quest for Designer Drugs”
Semisynthetic penicillins
- narrow spectrum; used for Staph aureus resistant to penicillin G; however, some become resistent (MRSA)
methicillin
broad spectrum - can be used orally for G- infections.
ampicillin
broad spectrum; used to treat E. coli urinary infections.
amoxicillin
From fungus Cephalosporium acremonium - broad spectrum.


Pharmacological action: Inhibits cell wall synthesis; resemble penecillins: Four generations based on their antibacterial activity
Cephalosporins
- Cephalothin (ex. Keflex®)
-absorbed orally
- against G+ cocci and a few G- rods.
First Generation Cephalosporins
Cefotiams (ex.Cefaclor®)
- Better for G- rods (Enterobacter, Proteus, Haemophilus)
Second Generation Cephalosporins
Moxalactames (ex. Cefotaxime®)
-against G- enteric bacteria
third Generation Cephalosporins
Cefepime (ex. Maxipime®)
-semisynthetic, given by IM or IV injections
-usually reserved to treat severe nosocomial pneumonia, infections caused by multi-resistant microorganisms (e.g., Staph aureus
Fourth Generation Cephalosporins
Broad spectrum - from Streptomyces bacteria.


Pharmacological action: bind to ribosomes and block reading of mRNA.

Used to treat G- urinary and intestinal infections.
Aminoglycosides (the mycins)
discovered in 1940's by Waksman - no longer used - side effects - damage to auditory nerve - possible deafness.
Streptomycin
topical ointment
neomycin
Gram neg. rods
tobramycin & gentamycin
- 1st broad spectrum antibiotic discovered in 1947. No longer used unless all other drugs ineffective. Too many side effects- prevents hemoglobin incorporation into RBC's.
Chloramphenicol
From Streptomyces bacteria.
Pharmacological Action: prevents protein synthesis in microorganisms.
Chloramphenicol
From Streptomyces bacteria. Broad-spectrum.

Pharmacological action: interfere with protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes.
tetracyclines
From Streptomyces bacteria. Used for G+ infections if penicillin allergic.

Pharmacological action: inhibits protein synthesis
erythromycin
- From Streptomyces bacteria.
For Staph infections when penicillin and methicillin resistant - very toxic; only used for life-threatening conditions. Some Staph VRSA
vancomycin
From Bacillus bacteria. Restricted to topicals. Combined with neomycin in neosporin.
bacitracin & polymyxin B
topical only

-From Streptomyces bacteria.
- for yeast infections with Candida albicans (intestine, vagina or oral cavity)

Pharmacological action: changes permeability of cell membrane.
nystatin (mycostatin
Used only for potentially fatal deep fungus diseases because of serious side effects.

Pharmacological action: degrades cell membranes of fungus cells.
amphoteracin B
-antibiotics in known concentrations in paper discs placed on seeded or swabed agar plates for analysis of results (susceptible or resistant).

-ZONE OF INHIBITION around sensitive antibiotics.
Antibiotic Disc sensitivities - Kirby Bauer Test
Due to bacterial mutations and/or resistance factors transferred through bacterial recombination
antibacterial resistance
(1) synthesis of enzymes that inactivate the drug (e.g. PPNG)
(2) decrease in cell permeability and thus drug uptake (e.g. MDR or multidrug resistant pumps)
(3) change in drug receptor sites (number or affinity) (e.g. drugs can't bind to cell)
(4) modification of a metabolic pathway to avoid drug action
(5) natural selection
Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
*(1) Most important energy source for cells.

(2) Some structural components of cells.
e.g. cell wall (peptidoglycan), capsule, glycoproteins and glycolipids of cell membrane.
carbs
single most important energy source for all cells. 6 carbon molecule
glucose
keto isomer of glucose. Used to make disaccharides like sucrose.
fructose
isomer of glucose - found as component of milk sugar lactose.
galactose
- main components of polysaccharide part of peptidoglycan.
N-acetyl muramic acid (NAMA) and N acetyl glucose amine (NAGA)
Used for energy purposes only.
Disaccharides
composed of glucose and fructose -"Table sugar"
sucrose
milk sugar. Composed of glucose and galactose.
lactose
composed of 2 glucoses – not a natural product; breakdown product of starch
maltose
Can be used for storage of energy; however, bacteria do not store much CHO – limited space
Polysaccharides
can be used for energy if the bacteria have the enzymes (amylases) to break them down.
Polysaccharides
are also major structural components in bacteria cells (cell wall (peptidoglycan in bacteria and cellulose in molds and plants), bacterial capsule and part of cell membrane).
Polysaccharides
- plant cell walls - single chains of thousands of glucose molecules held together by covalent beta glycosidic bonds. These are very stiff and insoluble bonds that give cellulose its physical qualities.
cellulose
simple starch – single chains of thousands of glucose molecules held together by alpha glycosidic bonds - very flexible and soluble in water. Breaks down quickly into disaccharide sugar
amylose
starch - chains of thousands of glucose molecules with branches held together by alpha glycosidic bonds

- very flexible and soluble in water. (The more side branches or “pectins” the more complex the carbohydrate) Breaks down slowly into disaccharide sugars and simple monosaccharide sugars because of branching.
amylopectin
G+ bacterial cell wall composed of single chains of thousands of n-acetyl muramic acid (NAMA) and n-acetyl glucose amine (NAGA) monosaccharide molecules held together by covalent beta glycosidic bonds (stiff and insoluble). These polysaccharide chains are cross-linked by peptides.
peptidoglycan
(1) Some energy storage

(2) Energy source if bacteria has enzymes (lipases) to break them down.

(3) Structural component of bacterial cells. e.g. Cell membrane.
lipids
triglycerides.
-Energy storage in animal and plant cells. Some bacteria can use them as an energy source.
-Composed of glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
simple lipids
found as major component of cell membranes


-have both polar charged (hydrophilic) and non-polar uncharded (hydrophobic) parts.
phosolipids
non-polar ring structure with 1 polar group (OH) at top. Can be in cell membranes.-
cholesterol
--central C with NH2 (amino group) and COOH (acid or carboxyl group) and R group (about 22 different amino acids based on 22 different R groups).
amino acid (building blocks of protein)
(have + charges on R)
basic
(have – charges on R)
acidic
sequence of amino acids in the protein. (genetically determined).
primary
- alpha helix and pleated sheet (determined by primary structure.)
secondary
3-D structure by further folding (determined by primary and secondary structures). Proteins are inactive if they lose this shape.
tertiary
Only found in large structural components - made of several protein parts joined together.

Antibody molecules and virus protein coats are composed of several proteins joined together.
quaternary
3 components of neuclotides
1) Nitrogen bases
2) 5 carbon (pentose) sugar
3) Phosphate
NA are composed of basic units called
neuclotides
[1] Adenine (RNA & DNA)
[2] Guanine (RNA & DNA)
purines
[1] Thymine (DNA only)
[2] Cytosine (RNA; DNA)
[3] Uracil (RNA only)
Pyrimidines
[a]DS (double stranded)
[b]Complementary (A=T; C=G)
[c]Antipolar (the 2 strands run in opposite directions from 5'P to 3'OH)
[d]Helical (alpha helix is uneven – has major and minor grooves
[e]20 A wide
[f]Bases in a flat plane perpendicular to the P-D sides and 3.4 A apart (steps)
DNA
x-ray diffraction photo
"51" of DNA
franklin
Total DNA in cells is the
genome
(1) SS instead of DS
(except in REO viruses)
(2) Uracil instead of Thymine
(3) Ribose instead of
Deoxyribose
(4) Tertiary structures
RNA