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8 Cards in this Set

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Physiological Communication between cells

-intercellular communication

-2 types: 1) Electrical: NOT receptor mediated

2) Chemical: RECEPTOR MEDIATED, requires presence of RECEPTOR

Electrical Communication

-requires cytoplasmic continuation between 2 cells (Gap Junction- 6 proteins that form a cytoplasmic continuous pore in the membrane called CONNEXINS- allow two adjacent cells to act as one)

-Communication is instantaneous

-Cardiacmuscles contract almost as a single muscle because communication between musclecells is instantaneous. Syncitium– many acting as one

-electrical communication b/w neurons (Gap Junctions)


-chemical communication

-act on the same cell that secreted them cell releases a chemical (first messenger), whichthen binds to a receptor on the same cell. Auto=samea


- -diffusible (receptor is located on closely adjacent cells)

-secreted by one cell and diffuse into adjacent cell

- cell releases a chemical and finds a receptor on a closely adjacent cell

-Examplesare histamines (inflammatory reaction in immune system), nitric oxide (moreimportant in terms of cardio system), cytokines are protein messengersimportant in immune system function, eicosanoids are molecules involved ininflammation. Just examples of paracrine signals.

Short Distance Communication

-Synaptic Transmission- form of paracrine signaling

-one of two members are neurons (synaptic transmission- Neuronwill release neurotransmitter, which will travel a very short distance and bindto a receptor on a target, which can be another neuron or a skeletal musclecell or endocrine cell, cardiac cell, smooth muscle cell. FIRST MEMBER WILL ALWAYS BE A NEURON

Long Distance Chemical Communication (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ALWAYS)

-- endocrine cell release hormone that will enter systematic circulation

- any hormone once in systematic circulation, has the ability to access any parts of our body

-Distinguish factor between hormone A, B and C is whether or not a cell have a receptor for that hormone

-if there is receptor, there will be RESPONSE. NO RECEPTOR = NO RESPONSE

Neuro-hormonal communication

- two hormones: Theneurons reside in hypothalamus to give rise to axons that terminate inposterior pituitary. Those are neurohormones involved in long distancecommunication.


Overview of Chemical Signaling Pathway

-Reception Pathway: first messenger (ligand) receptor will bind to transmembrane protein

--> receptor that recognizes a signal molecule --> transduction (conformational change in receptor associated with signal molecule), if receptor is an ion channel then transduction will involve opening an ion channel