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95 Cards in this Set

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In the amylase experiment, what was the substrate?
Starch
In the amylase experiment, what was the Benedict's test used for? Describe a positive result
To test for the presence of Glucose, indicating the starch had been digested/broken down into glucose. A color change to yellow/orange = positive for glucose.
In the amylase experiment, what was Lugol's solution (iodine) used for? Describe a positive result.
To test for the presence of starch. A blue/black color change indicated starch was still present, thus no digestion occurred.
What conditions reacted the most and fastest in the amylase experiment.
amylase at 37 degrees C
In the Pepsinogen experiment, what was the substrate?
egg white (protein)
In the pepsinogen/pepsin experiment, what indicated a positive test for protein digestion?
complete - egg white gone
partial - cloudy water, frayed edges of egg.
What is necessary for pepsinogen to activate and digest the egg white
hydrochloric acid.
In the lipase experiment, what was the substrate?
butter fats/lipids
In the lipase experiment, what was the reagent?
litmus powder
Litmus powder turns ________ in acidic conditions and ____________ in basic conditions
red
blue/purple
In the lipase experiment, what was necessary for the lipase to digest fully?
Bile salts
In the pig dissection, where would you find the thymus?

What does it do?
extends down from the neck to the heart

important for a healthy immune system
In the pig dissection, where would you find the pancreas?

What does it do?
under the stomach

endocrine fxn - secretes insulin
exocrine fxn - secretes lipase into small intestine.
In the pig dissection, where would you find the thyroid?

what does it do?
in the throat medially

Secretes thyroid hormone, which regulates metabolism
what is inspiratory reserve volume? IRV
the amount of air you can forcibly inhale after normal inspiration
what is expiratory reserve volume? (ERV)
the amount of air you can forcibly exhale after normal expiration
what is tidal volume
the amount of air you normally inhale and exhale while resting
what is inspiratory capacity? IC
it is inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) + tidal volume
IRV + TV = IC
what is residual volume? RV
the amount of air left in the lungs after forcibly exhaling as much air as possible
What is vital capacity?
Vital Capacity = inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume.
What is total lung capacity?
Total lung capacity = inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume + residual volume.
what is the formula for inspiratory reserve volume using vital capacity (VC), Tidal volume (TV) and Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
IRV = (VC-TV) - ERV
How to determine a person's minute respiratory volume?
TV x breaths/minute
what is the typical residual volume amount for
women?
men?
women = 900 mL
men = 1200 mL
What does the hypothalamus synthesize?
oxytocin and ADH
on a lab slide what color is the posterior pituitary gland?
pink
on a lab slide, what color is the anterior pituitary gland?
purple (or darker pink)
what does the posterior pituitary gland do?
stores oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the hypothalamus
what does the anterior pituitary gland do?
Called the "Master Endocrine Gland" - secretes growth hormone and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
pineal gland function
secretes melatonin - regulates sleep cycles
general adrenal gland function
secretes over 2 dozen steroid hormones called corticosteroids which help deal with stress
What does the zona glomerulosa secrete
mineralcorticoids
what does the zona fasciculata secrete
glucocorticoids
what does the zona reticularis secrete?
sex steroids
what does the thyroid gland do?
secretes thyroid hormone (TH) which regulates metabolism
what does the parathyroid gland do?
secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH), which regulates calcium balance in the blood
what does the thymus do?
instrumental in immune response) - secretes peptide hormones which are necessary for the normal development of T lymphocytes
what is the most important function of the spleen?
Cleanses the blood - extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets from the blood, and it macrophages remove debris and foreign matter from blood.
what is the lymphatic function of the thymus?
It's where T lymphocytes mature.
what do tonsils do?
gather and remove many pathogens entering the pharynx in food or in inhaled air.
what do lymph nodes do?
Help activate the immune system - contain lymphocytes.
filter the lymph - macrophases in the nodes remove and destroy mircroorganisms and debris that enter the lymph from the loose connective tissues, preventing them from being deliever to the blood
what does the appendix do?
contains lymphoid follicles which destroy bacteria and also generates memory lymphocytes for long-term immunity
what blood type is the universal donor? Why?
O negative
B/C O blood contains neither type A nor type B surface antigens, nor does it contain Rh surface antigens
what blood type is the universal recipient?
AB positive blood does not contain any antibodies to A, B, or Rh negative.
what is hematocrit?

what's normal
The percent of RBC's in whole blood (not the number of RBC's)

45 - 50 %
in what order of commonality are the different white blood cells (leukocytes) found?
neutrophils
lymphocytes
monocytes
eosinophils
basophils
what is the general fxn of
neutrophils?
phagocytic - eat foreign pathogens
what is the general fxn of lymphocytes?
immunity - recognizes and then attacks and destroys foreign bodies
what is the general fxn of monocytes?
become macrophages which are large phagocytic cells that eat foreign pathogens
what is the general fxn of eosinophils?
reduce inflammation
what is the general fxn of basophils?
increase inflammation - release histamine.
what do chief cells secrete?
Pepsinogen
what do parietal cells secrete?
hydrochloric acid