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65 Cards in this Set

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Simple Squamous Epithelium

Function: Diffusion and smooth lining


Location: Lung, Heart, Blood vessels

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

Function: Resists abrasion, infection, water loss


Location: Epidermis, vagina, oral cavity

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Function: Absorption and secretion


Location: Kidneys, tubules and liver

Simple Columnar Epithelium

Function: Absorption and secretion


Location: From stomach to intestines

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar

Function: Secretes mucous, traps "dust"


Location: Some respiratory passages

Smooth muscle

Function: Involuntary contractions


Location: digestive tract, respiratory tract, blood vessels

Transitional Epithelium

Function: Allows for stretching of urinary bladder


Location: urinary bladder, ureter

Pineal Gland

Increased production melatonin at night, decreased melatonin by day


(may contribute to sleep patterns)



Hypothalamus

Regulates primitive functions


Secretes simulating and inhibiting hormones that act on other hormone releasing glands

Pituitary gland

Has two major lobes: Anterior and Posterior

Thyroid histology


Basophil

S-shaped nucleus if you could see it


Involved with inflammatory and allergic reactions

Eosionophil

Increased during parasitic infections and allergic reactions

Neutrophil



Increase for acute bacterial infections

Lymphocyte

Two groups: B cells, T cells


Increased with viral infections

Monocyte

Increase with chronic infection

Sickle-cell anemia



sticky and agglutinate easily


beneficial to heterozygous individuals, lethal to homozygous recessive individuals

Mononucleosis


caused by EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)


causes increase of lymphocytes in blood





Body-vena cava-right atrium-right ventricle-pulmonary arteries-lungs-pulmonary veins-left atrium-left ventricle-aorta-body
Blood flow through the heart
Atrial Depolarization
P Wave
Ventricular depolarization
QRS complex
Ventricular repolarization (also arterial repolarization)
T wave
1. Muscular contraction

2. Muscular relaxation

Depolarization triggers ________________

Repolarization triggers _________________

Black= Ascending Aorta

Red= Vena Cava (superior)


Purple= Interatrial septum


Gray= Right atrium


Green= Right ventricle


Pink= Left ventricle


Light Blue= Interventricular septum


Dark Blue= Left atrium


Yellow= Pulmonary vein


Orange= Pulmonary artery


White= Aortic arch

Black=Aortic arch

Pink= Pulmonary artery


Yellow= Coronary sinus


Green= Vena cava


Blue= Superior vena cava


Orange= Inferior Vena cava


Red= Ascending aorta

Red= trabeculae carneae

Black= Right atrioventricular (AV) valve


Blue= Chordae Tendineae


Green= Papillary muscle


Light green= Papillary muscle


Yellow= Chordae tendineae


Orange= Left AV valve


White= Aortic semilunar valve


Pink= Pulmonary semilunar valve

Atherosclerosis

Hardening of arteries-obstructs lumen and deteriorates artery

Lingual Gland
Palatine Gland
Pharyngeal gland
Spleen

Blue= Red Pulp (RBC graveyard)


Red= Central Artery


Green= White Pulp (lymphocyte production)

Blood vessel

Black= Tunica interna


Yellow= Tunica Externa


Blue= Tunica Media


Red= lumen

Tonsil

1st line of defense against invading pathogens from mouth and nose


Has tonsilar crypts that increase surface area

Thymus Gland



Lighter region: Medulla; has T-Cells (self-recognition, immunocompetence


Darker region: cortex (developing T-Cells)

Spleen


Lymph Node
Fluid recovery, immunity, lipid absorption
Function of Lymphatic system
Bronchi-Bronchioles-Respiratory Bronchioles-Alveolar ducts-Alveoli
Flow of Air
VC=IRV+ERV+TV

VC= total volume of air that can be forcefully expelled from the lungs after maximal inhalation


IRV= Max amount of air that can be inhaled after normal inhalation


ERV= max amount of air that can be exhaled after normal exhalation


TV= tidal volume-the normal volume of breath that can be inhaled and exhaled

Vital Capacity (VC)=
Anthracosis or Black Lung

Deposition of carbon tissue along alveolar tissue

Emphysema

Loss of elasticity in lungs

The Pharynx

Green= Uvula


Red= Pharyngeal tonsils-"catch" incoming particles


Yellow= Nasopharynx


Orange= Oropharynx


Black= Glottis


Brown/purple= Laryngopharynx


Blue= Larynx

Dark Green= The nose

Pink= Pharynx


Black=Trachea


Red= Lungs


Dark Blue= Bronchi


Yellow=Larynx


Light green=Nasal cavity

Blue=Vestibule

Gray=External nares


Green= Nasal cavity


Light Green= Internal nares


Black= Inferior nasal turbinates


Red= Middle nasal turbinates


Yellow= Superior nasal turbinates

Pink= Trachea

Light green= Right superior lobe


Purple= Tertiary bronchi


Light blue= Secondary bronchi


Brown= Right Middle lobe


Dark blue= Right/left inferior lobe


Red= Cardiac notch


Dark green= Left superior lobe


Yellow= Primary bronchi

Filters dissolved materials from blood

Regulates fluid volume and electrolytes


Concentrates and releases waste products


Reabsorbs important metabolites

Urinary function
Collecting duct- minor calyx- major calyx- renal pelvis- ureter- bladder- urethra
Flow of urine
Red= Kidney

Yellow= Adipose tissue


Gray= Bladder


White= Ureter


Green= renal artery

Kidney

Yellow- Minor calyx

White- Major calyx


Pink= Renal pelvis


Blue= Ureter


Red= Renal pyramid


Green= Renal papilla

Cortex of Kidney

Circles are glomerulus


White spaces are convoluted tubules (simple cuboidal epithelium)

Kidney
Medulla of kidney

Has collecting ducts

Parotid gland
Sublingual gland
Submandibular gland
Stomach

Fxn: Break down food further using mechanical and chemical digestion

Esophagus-stomach junction



Esophagus: Stratified squamous


Stomach: Simple columnar

Duodenum

Fxn: Primarily digestion, especially lipids


Duodenal glands produce alkaline secretion

Jejunum


Illeum

Has Peyer's Patches-another line of defense against pathogens

Large Intestine

Fxn: Water absorption, feces formation, some vitamin and solute absorbtion

LiverFxn: Produces bile, detoxification of blood, bilirubin absorption
Pancreas

Dark=Acinar cells, Light= Pancreatic islet cells


Endocrine function: Insulin and glucagon


Exocrine function: secretes alkalinic pancreatic juice

1. Produce sex hormones

2. Produce functional gametes


3. Protect, support and deliver embryo


4. Nourish newborn

Function of the Female Reproductive System
Process of oocyte production
Oogenesis