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26 Cards in this Set

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On an EKG strip, how many squares represent 1 second

So, each square represents?
Each dot represents?
5

.2 seconds
.04 seconds
Trace the path of the action potential through the heart.
Starts at the Sinoatrial (SA) node (which sets the pace)
to the atrioventricular node (where the impulse is delayed to allow the atria to complete b4 ventricles contract)
Then to the atrioventricular bundle/Bundle of His - (which is the only electrical connection btw the atria and vents)
to the R&L bundle branches (which travel along the septum)
To the Purkinje fibers (which cause vent depol)
what is the term for when the EKG just show a squiggly line
ventricular fibrillation
what is the "lead" in an EKG
the lead is a potential difference between two or more points on the surface of the body
why are the standard Leads I, II, and III called "bipolar"?
b/c they are the potential btw two electrodes, one which is positive and the other negative.
What is the wire used in EKG
the wire is the insulated metal that attaches the electrodes to the laboratory equipment.
Describe the view of the following:

Lead I
Lead II
Lead III
Lead I = looking at the heart from a horizontal direction from right arm to left arm
Lead II = Lookin at the heart from a diagonal direction from right arm to left leg.
Lead III = Looking at the heart from a vertical direction from the left arm to left leg.
_______I________
* *
* *
II * * III
* *
*
_______I________
* *
* *
II * * III
* *
*
What are normal values:
PR interval
QRS duration
QT interval
.12 sec (3 dots
less than .12 sec (3 dots)
less than .38 sec (9.5 dots)
What is an EKG
electrocardiogram is a graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart as measure at the body surface.
what is used to measure specific gravity?

what is specific gravity?

what is the typical specific gravity of urine?
refractometer

a measurement of the concentration of solutes in a specimen compared to pure water
1.010 to 1.030
Name some normal sediments in urine:

Name some abnormal sediments in urine.
Normal: mucous strands, epithelial cells

Abnormal: many wbc's, rbc's, bacteria
what is the urine centrifuged in?
a centrifuge tube (aka sediment tube)
how is a centrifuge/sediment tube different from a test tube?
they have a cone shaped base for collecting and retrieving sediment in the very bottom
what is the formula for calculating Mean Arterial Pressure?
MAP = pulse pressure divided by 3 + diastolic pressure
what is pulse pressure?
the difference btw systolic and diastolic pressure (aka the working pressure)
if there are 12 beats every 10 seconds, what is the pulse rate?
1 min = 60 seconds
60/10 = 6
12 * 6 = 72 bpm
what is a normal pulse pressure?
40

(Normal bp = 120/80 so 120-80=40)
what is responsible for heart sounds?
valves opening and closing
and
blood movement
During taking a bp, what causes the sounds you do or don't hear?
No sounds = vessel is completely closed and there is no blood flow
kortokoff sounds = turbulent flow of the blood through partially open vessels
no sounds again = blood vessel fully open, so no turbulent flow to make noise
what is the first (lub) sound in the heart?

what is the second (dub) sound in the heart beat?
closing of the AV valves

closing of the semilunar valves
define pulse

define arterial blood pressure
represents the pressure exerted by blood as it pushes against an artery wall.

the pressure exerted by blood as it pushes against an artery wall during the cardiac cycle.
what is the name of the instrument used to take blood pressure?
sphygmomanometer
on what lead can you see the P wave the clearest?

The QRS?
Lead I

Lead III
what type of cells are in the:
tunica intima
tunica media
tunica externa
simple squamous epithelial
smooth muscle
connective tissue and collagen
what is the formula for blood pressure?
BP = cardiac output * resistance