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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

exocrine glands

produce non hormonal substances such as sweat and saliva, and have ducts through which these substances are routed to a membrane surface

endocrine glands

produce hormones and lack ducts


chemicals that exert their effects on the same cells that secrete them


act locally but affect cell types other than those releasing the paracrine chemicals

two hormones that are steroids

gonadal and adrenocortical


situation when one hormone cannot exert its full effects without another hormone being present


occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target cell, and their combined effected are amplified

humoral stimuli

most simple of endocrine control systems

humoral stimuli

endocrine glands secrete their hormones in direct response to changing blood levels of certain critical ions and nutrients

neural stimuli

nerve fibers stimulate hormone release

hormonal stimuli

many endocrine glands release their hormones in response to hormones produced by other endocrine organs

pituitary gland or hypophysis

gland located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone


stalk of the pituitary gland that connects it to the hypothalamus


largest pure endocrine gland in the body

tropic hormones

thyroid stimulating, adrenocorticotropic, follicle stimulating, luteinizing

tropic hormones

hormones that regulate the secretory action of other endocrine glands


cells that produce the growth hormone


hyper secretion of growth hormone in children, still active epiphyseal growth plates

pituitary dwarfism

GH deficiency in children

pineal gland

may influence our day and night cycles and regulate the onset of sexual maturity

thymus gland

gland declines in size and function with age


produce the hormones that promote the development of female secondary sex characteristics at puberty

posterior pituitary

storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain


produces the hormones that direct the production of secondary sex characteristics in males

adrenal glands

produce steroid hormones and gluccocorticoids and moneralcorticoids


produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ


strong stimulant of uterine contraction and acts as a hormonal trigger for milk ejection

antidiuretic hormone

prevents wide swings in water balance, helps body avoid dehydration and water overload, inhibits or prevents urine formation

diabete insipidus

result of adh deficiency, output of huge amounts of urine and intense thurst

thyroid gland

gland located in the anterior neck, on the trachea just inferior to the larynx

thyroid hormone

body's major metabolic hormone, t3 and t4

parathyroid hormone

most important hormone controlling the calcium balance of the blood


function is regulation of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids


influence energy metabolism of most body cells and help to resist stressors

addison's disease

major hyposecretory disorder of the adrenal cortex, involves deficits in both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids


mixed gland composed of both endocrine and exocrine gland cells

diabetes mellitus

results from hypo secretion or hypo activity of insulin

gland that hangs from the roof of the third ventricle in the diencephalon

pineal gland

growth hormone

important anabolic hormone, many of its effects mediated by IGFs

luteinizing hormone

tropic hormone that stimulates the gonads to secrete sex hormones


causes reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys