Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/453

Click to flip

453 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Evolution
descent w/ modification idea that living species are descendants of ancestral present day population to population
Biology
scientific study of life
Emergent Properties
new properties thta arise w/ each step upward in hierarchy of life owing to arrangement and interaction of parts as complexity increase
System Biology
approach to studying biology aims to mdel dynanmic behavior of whole biological system
Eukaryotic Cell
cell w/ membrane-enclosed nucleus & membrane-enclosed organelles, protist, plants, fungi, and animals
Prokaryotic Cell
cell lacking membrane-enclosed nucleus & memrbane-enclosed organelles bacteria and archaea
DNA
double helix consist of nucleotide monomer w/ deoxyribose sugar N base A,T,G,C able replicated determine structure
Gene
discrete unit of heredity infromation consisting of specific neucleotide sequence in DNA, RNA or some virus
Genome
genetic material of organism or virus complete complement of organism or virus gense along w/ noncoding nucleic acid
Bioinformatics
use of computers, software, mathematical models to process and integraate bio information from large data states
Negative Feedback
primary mechanism of homeostasis a change in a physiological variable triggers response counteracts initial change
Posistive Feedback
physiological control mechanism in which a change in variable trigger mechanism amplify change
Bacteria
one of the two prokaryotic domain
Archaea
one of the two prokaryotic domain
Eukarya
domains that includes all eukaryoic organisms
Natural Selection
process in which organisms w/ certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive reproduce than are organisms w/ other characteristics
Inquiry
search for information and explanation,often focused by specific questions
Discovery Science
process of scientific inquiry that focuses on describng nature
Data
recorded observations
Inductive Reasoning
type of logic in which generalization based on a large number of specific observations
Hypothesis
tentative answer to well-framed question narrower in scope than theory and subject to testing
Deductive Reasoning
type of logic in which specific result are predicted from general premise
Controlled Experiment
experiment in which an experimental group is compared w/ control group that varies only in factor being tested
Theory
explanation that is broad in scope generate new hypothesis and supported by a large body of evidence
Model
representation of a theory or process
Technology
application of scientfic knowledge for specific purpose often involving or commerce but also inclduing basic research
Matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
Element
any substance that can't be broken down to any other substance by chemical reaction
Compound
substance consist of two or more different element combined in fixed ratio
Trace Electron
element indispensiable for life but required in extremely minute amounts
Atom
smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
Neutrons
subatomic particle having no electrical charge (neutral) with a mass of about 1.7x10-24 found in the nucleus of an atom
Proton
subatmoic particle w/ single positive electrical charge w/ a mass of about 1.7x10-24 found in the nucleus of atom
Dalton
measure of mass for atoms and subatomic particles (same as amu)
Atomic Number
number of protons on the nucleus of an atom unique for each element and designated by subscript to left elemental symbol
Mass Number
sum of the number of protons and neutrons in atom's nucleus
Atomic Mass
total mass of an atom which is hte mass in grams of 1 mole of the atom
Isotope
one of several atomic forms of an element w/ smae number of protons but different number of neutrons differ in atomic mass
Radioactive Isotope
isotope is unstable the nucleus decays spontaneously giving off detectable particels and energy
Energy
capacity to cause change especially to do work (move matter against an opposing force)
Potential Energy
energy that matter possess as a result of its location or spatial arrangement (structure)
Electron Shell
energy level of electrons at a charcteristic average distance from nucleus of an atom
Valance Electron
electron in outermost electron shell
Valence Shell
outermost energy shell of an atom contain valence electron involved in chemical reaction of atom
Orbital
3-D space where an electron is found 90% of time
Chemical Bond
attraction between two atoms result from sharing outer-shell electron or presence opposite change on atom bound atom gain complete outer electron shells
Covalent Bond
strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more paris of valence electron
Molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Single Bond
single covalent bond sharing of a pair of valence electron by two atoms
Structural FOrmula
molecular notation in which the constituent atoms joined by lines representing covalent bonds
Molecular Formula
molecular notation represent the quantity of constituent atoms, but not nature of bonds that join them
Double Bond
double covalent bond shareing of two paris of valance electron by two atoms
Valence
bonding capacity often usually equal the number of unpaired electrons recquire complete atom outermost (valence) shell
Electronegativity
attraction of a given atom for electron of a covalent bond
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
Polar Covalent Bond
covalent bond between atom that differ in electronativity shared electron pulled closer to more electronegative atom negative and positive atom
Ion
atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost one or more lectrons thus accquiring a change
Cation
postivity charged ion
Anion
negatively charged ion
Ionic Bond
chemical bond result from attraction between oppositely charged ions
Ionic Compound
compound result from the formation of an ionic bond
Salt
compound result from formation of an ionic bond
Hydrogen Bond
weak chemical bond formed when slightly positive H atom of polar covalently bond in one molecule attracted to slighty negative atom polar covalent bond in another moelcule
Van der Waals Interaction
weak attraction between moelcule or parts of moelcuels that result from localized charge fluctuation
Chemcial Reaction
making and breaking of chemical bonds leading to chagnes in composition of matter
Reactant
starting material in chemical reaction
Product
material resulting from chemical reaction
Chemical Equilibrium
chemical reaction state in which the rate of reverse reaction so relative concnetration of reactatns and produces don't change w/ time
Polar Molecule
molecule with opposite charges on different end of molecule
Cohesion
binding together of like molecule often by hydrogen bonds
Adhesion
attraction between differnt kinds of molecules
Surface Tension
measure of how difficult its to stretch or break the surface of the liquid water has high surface tension because of H bonding of surface molecule
Kinetic Energy
energy associated with relative motion of object moving matter can perform by work by imparting motion to other matter
Heat
total amount of Kinetic energy due to random motion of atoms or molecule in body energy,heat is energy in its most random form
Temperature
meausre of intensity of heat in degrees, refelcting the average kinetic energy of molecule
Celsius Scale
temperature scale equals (5/9) (F-32) that measure the freezing point at 0 and boiling point of water at 100
Calorie (Cal)
amount of heat energy recquired to raise temperature of 1g of water by 1C amount of heat energy 1g releases when cools
Kilocalorie (Kcal)
thousand calories amount of heat energ recquired to raise temperature of 1Kg of water 1C
Joule (J)
unit of energy 1J:.239 cal, 1cal=4.184J
Specific Heat
amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of substance to change its temperature by 1C
Evaporative Cooling
process in which the surface of an object becomes cooler during evaporation owing to change of molecule w/ greatest kinetic energy liquid to gaseous state
Solution
liquid that is homogenous mixture of two or more substance
Solvent
dissolving agent of a solution water is most versatile solvent known
Solute
substance that is dissolved in a solution
Aqueous Soluton
solution in which water is the solvent
Hydration Shell
sphere of water moelcule around an a dissolved ion
Hydrophilic
having an affinity for water
Colloid
mixture made up a liquid and particles remain suspend rather than dissolved in liquid
Molecular Mass
sum of masses of all the atoms in molecule (molecular weight)
Mole
number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains avagadros number of molecules
Molarity
common measure of solute concentration referring to number of moles of solue per liter of solution
Hydrogen Ion
sing proton w/ a single charge of it dissociaton of water molecule leads to generation of hydroxide ion and hydrogen ion
Hydroxide Ion
water molecule that has lost a proton (OH-)
Hydronium Ion
water molecule that has an extra proton found to it H3O
Acid
substance that incrases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
Base
susbtrate that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
PH
measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log[H] and ranging in value 0-14
Buffer
substance consists of acid and base forms in solution and that minimizes chnages in ph when extraneous acids or bases are added to solution
Acid Precipitation
rain,snow, fog that is more acidic than ph 5.2
Organic Chemistry
study of carbon compounds
Hydrocarbons
organic molecule consist only of carbon and hydrogen
Isomer
compound with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties structural geometric enatiomers
Structural Isomer
compound have same molecular formula but differ in covalent arrangement of atoms
Geometric Isomer
compound have same molecular formula and covalent arrangement but differ in spatial arrangement of atom owing to inflexibility double bond
Enatiomer
compound that mirror images of each other
Functional Group
specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to carobon skeleton of organic molecule usually in chemical reaction
ATP
release free energy when its phosphate bond are hydrozlized energy used to drive endergonic reaction
Macromolecule
giant molecule formed by joining of small molecule usually by a condensation polysaccharide proteins nucleic acid
Polymer
long molecule consist of many similar or identical monomer linked together
Monomer
subunit that serves as building block of a polymer
Condensationn Reaction
reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through loss of small molecule usually water which case dehydration reaction
Dehydration Reaction
chemical reaction in which two molecule covalently bonded to each other with the removal of water molecule
Enzyme
macromolecule serving as catalyst chemical agent that changens the rate of reaction w/out being consumed by the reaction
Carbohydrate
sugar or one of its dimers or polymer
Monosaoccharide
simplest sugar carbohydrate active alone or serving as monomer for disacharride and polysaccharide simple sugar monosaccharide have molecular formula generally multiple of CH2O
Disaccharide
double sugar consist of 2 monosaccharide joined by glycosdic linkage formed during dehydration synthesis
Glycosidic Linkage
covalent bond formed between two monosaccharide by dehydration reaction
Polysaccharide
polymer of many monosaccharide formed by dehydration reaction
Starch
storage polysaccharide in plants consist entirely of glucose monomer joined by glycosidic lnkage
Glycogen
extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in liver and muscle of animals
Cellulose
structural polysaccharide of plant cell wall consist of glucose monomer joined by B glycosidic linkage
Lipid
group of compound including fats phospholipid and steriod mix poorly if at with water
Fat
lipid consist of three fatty acid linked to one glycerol molecule
Fatty Acid
long carbon chain carboxylic acid vary in length and number and location of double bond three fatty acid linked to glycerol molecule form at fat molecule
Triacylglyerol
three fatty acids linked to one glcyerol molecule
Saturated Fatty Acid
fatty acid in which all carbons in hydrocarbon tain are connected by single bond thus maximizing number of hydrogen atoms are attached to carbon skeleton
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between carbons in hydrocarbon tail such bonding reduce the number of hydrogen atom attached to carbon skeleton
Transfat
unsaturated fat containing ne or more trans double bond
Phospholipid
lipid made of glycerol join to 2 fatty acid and phosphate group hydrocarbon chain of fatty acid acts nonpolar hydrobic tails rest polar hydrophilic head
Steriod
type of lipid charactereized by carbon skeleton consist of four ring w/ various chemical group
Cholestrol
steriod that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts a precurseurs molecule for synthesis of other bio important steriod
Catalyst
chemial agent that increases th rate of a reaction without being consumed by a reaction
Poypeptide
polymer of many amnio acid linked together by peptide bonds
Protein
functional biological molecule consiting of one or more polypeptide folded and coiled into a specific 3D structure
Amino Acid
organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino group amino acid serve as monomers of polypeptides
Peptide Bond
covalent bond between carboxyl group an one aminoi acid and amino group of another formed by dehydration
Dehydration
process in which a protein unravels and loses native shape therby becoming biologically inactive DNA the seperation of two strands of double helix denaturation occurs under extreme condition of ph, salt, concentration, temperature
Chperonin
protein molecule that assits in proper folding of otehr proteins
X-ray Crystalography
technqiue that depends on diffraction of an x-ray beam by individal atoms of crystalized molecule to study 3d structure of molecule
Gene
discrete unit of heredity infromation consisting of specific nucleotide sequience in DNA
Nucleic Acid
polymer consist of many nucleotide monomer serve as blue print for protein and through the action of protein for all cellular activities DNA and RNA
DNA
double helix consist of nucleotide monomer with deoxyribose sugar and N base A,T,G,C able to replicated and inherited structure of cell proteins
RNA
type of nucleic acid consist of nucleuotide monomer w/ ribose sugar and N base A,U,G,C single stranded function in protein synthesis gene regulation and genoem in some view
Polynucleotide
polymer consist of many nucleotide monomer in a chain nucleotide can be those of DNA and RNA
Pyrimidine
type of nitrogenous base found in nucleotide characterized by 6-membraned ring C,T,U
Nucleotide
building block of nucleic acid consist of five carbon sugar covalently bonded to nitrogenous base and phosphate group
Purine
type of nitrogenous base found in nucleotides charactereized by six membraned ring fused to five membraned ring A, G
Ribose
sugar component of RNA nucleotide
Dexoyribose
sugar component of DNA nucleotide having one fewer hydroxyl group than ribose the sugar component of DNA nucleotide
Double Helix
form of native DNA referring to its two adjacent antiparallel polynucleotide strands wound around imaginary axis into spiral shape
Antiparallel
opposite arrangement of sugar phosphate backbone in DNA double helix
Chitin
polysaccharide consisting of amino sugar monomers found in many fungal cell walls and in exoskeleton of all anthropods
Primary Structure
level of protein structure referring to specific sequence of aminio acid
Secondary Structure
localized reptitive coiling or folding of the polypetide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between constituents of backbone
Teritary Structure
irregular contortions of a protein moleucle due to interaction of side chain involed in hydrophobic interaction ionic bond and hydrogen bonds and disulfide bond
Hydrophobic Interaction
weak chemical bond formed when molecule that don't mix with water cogleece to exclude water
Disulfide Bridge
strong covalent bond formed when sulfur of one C monomer bonds to sulfur of another C monomer
Quaternary Structure
particular shape of complex aggregate protein defined by charcteristic 3D arrangement of its constituent subunit each polpeptide
Light Microscopic
optical instrument with lenses that refract (bend) visible light to magnify images of specimans
Organelle
membrane-enclosed structure with specialized function suspened in cytosol of eukaryotic cell
Electron Microscope
microscope that uses magnet to focus an electron beam solving power a thousandfold greater than tat of light microscope
Transmisson Electron Micrscope
study of internal structure of thin sections of cell
Scanning Electron Microscope
study of the fine detail of cell surface
Cell Fractionation
disruption of a cell and seperation
Cytosol
semifluid portion of the cytoplasm
Nucleoid
dense region of DNA in prokaryotic cell
Cytoplasm
conents to cell exclusive of nucleus and founded by plasma membrane
Nucleus
atom's central core contain protons and neutron the chromosome-contain organelle of eukaryotic cell a cluster of neutron
Nuclear Envelope
double membrane in eukaryotic cell that encloses the nucleus separating it from the cytoplasm
Nuclear Lamina
net like wavy of protein filaments living the inner surface of the nuclear envelope it helps maintain the shpae of nucleus
Chromosome
cellulose structure carry genetic material found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cell each chromosome consists of one vary long DNA molecule and associated protein
Chromatin
complex of DNA and protein that makes up eukaryotic chromosome when cell is not dividing chromatin exist in dispersed form mass of very long thin fiber that aren't visible with light microscope
Nucelolus
specialized structure in the nucleus consist of chromatin regions contain ribosomal RNA gene along with ribosomal proteins imported from cytoplasmic site of rRNA synthesis and ribosomal subunit assembly
Ribosome
complex of rRNA and protein molecule that functions as a site of protein synthesis in cytoplasm consit of large and small subunit is assembled in nucleous
Endomembrane System
collection of memebrane inside and around a eukaryotic cell related either through physical contact or transfer of membranous vesicle include smooth and rough er golgi apparatus, lysosome and vacuoles
Vesicle
sac made of membrane in cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cell continuous w/ outer nuclear membrane and composed to ribosome studded and ribosome free
Smooth Er
portion of endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribsomome
Rough Er
portion of endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosome
Glycoprotein
protein with one or more carbohydrate covaelntly attached to it
Transport Vesicle
tiny membraneous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell
Golgi Apparatus
organelle in eukaryotic cell consist of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify,store ,and route product of ER and sythesize some poduct notably non-cellulose carbohydrate
Lyosome
membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzyme found in cytoplasm of animal cell and some protist
Phagocytosis
type of endocytosis in which large particulate substances are taken up by a cell it is carried out by some protist and by certain immune cells of animals
Food Vacuole
membranous sac formed by phagocytosis of microorganism or particle to be used as food by the cell
Contractile Vacuole
membranous sac that helps move exces water out of certain fresh-water protist
Central Vsacuole
membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development
Mitochondria
organelle in eukarotic cell that serve as site of cellular respiration
Chloroplast
organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protist that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compound from Carbon Dioxide and water
Peroxisome
organelle containing enzyme that transfer hydrogen from vairous substrate to oxygen producing then degrading hydrogen peroxide
Cristae
an infolding of the inner membrane of a mitcohondrian that houses electron transport chain and molecule of the enezyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP
Mitochondrial Matrix
compartment of the mitochondria enclosed by the inner membrane and contain enzyme and substrate for citric acid cycle
Plastid
organelles that includes chloroplast, chromoplast, and mytoplast plastids are found in cell of phtoynthetic organsism
Thylakoid
flattened membranous sac inside a chloroplast thylakoid exist in an interconnected system in the chloroplast and contain the molecular machinery used to covert light energy to chemical energy
Granum
stack of membrane -bounded thylakoid in the cholorplast grana function in the light reaction of photosynthesis
Stroma
micrscopic pore surrounded by guard cell in epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and interior ofthe plant
Cytoskeleton
nework of microtubule, microfilament, intermediate filmaent that branch thoughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical transport and singnaling funcin
Motor Protein
portein that interact with cytoskeletal element and other cell component producing movement of the whole cell or parts of the cell
Microtubule
hollow rod composed of tubulin protein that make up part of the cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cell and found in cilia and flagela
Centrisome
structure present in cytoplasm of animal cell important during cell divison fucntion as microtubule-organizing center has 2 centrioles
Centriole
structure in the centrosome of an animal cell composed of a cylinde of microtubule triplets arranged in 9-0 pattern
Flagellum (flagella)
long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, eukaryotic flagella corve with nine outer doublet microtubules and twon liner single microtbule ensheatedd in extension of plasma membrane prokarotic flagella have different structure
Cilia
short cellular appendage contain microtubule motile cillium is specialized for locomotion and formed from cove 9-2 arrangment ensheated in an extension of plasma membrane primary cilium nonmotile and plays sensor and signal role lacks 2 inner microtuble (9-0 arrangment)
Basal Body
eukaryotic cell structure consist of 9-0 arrangment of microtubule triplets basal body may organize microtubule assembly of cilium of flagellum and strcturally very similar to centriole
Dynein
cilia and flagella large confractile protein extending from microtubule doublet to adjacement doublet ATP hydrolysis drives change in dynein shape lead to bending of cilia and flagella
Microfilament
capable composed of actin proteins in cytoplasm of almost every eukaryotic cell making up part of cytoskeleton and acting alone or with mysoin to cause cell contraction
Actin
globular protien that links to chain two which twist helically about each other forming microfilament to cause cell contraction
Mysoin
type of protein filament that acts as a motor protien with actin filament to cause cell contraction
Psudopodia
cellular extension of ameoboid cell used in mvoing and feeding
Cytoplasmic streaming
circular flow of cytoplasm involing myosin and actin filament that speed the distribution of material within cells
Intermediate Filament
component of cytoskeleton that includes filament intermediate size between microtubules and microfilament
Cell Wall
protective layer external to plasma emmrbane in cell of plants, prokaryote fungi and some protist polysaccharide cellulose chitin and peptidoglycan important structure and component of cell wall
Primary Cell Wall
in plant relatively thin and flexible layer first secreted by young cell
Middle Lamelia
in plant, a thin layer of adheisve extracellular material ,primarily necting found between teh primary walls of adjacent young cell
Secondary Cell Wall
in plants strong and duarble matrix often deposited in several laminated layers for cel protection adn support
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
substance in which animal cells are embedded consist of protien and polysaccharide synthesized and secrted by cell
Collagen
glycoprotein in the ECM of animal cellls that forms strong fibers found extensively in connective tissue and bone most abundant proton in animal kingdom
Proglycon
glycoprotein consist of small core with many carbohydrate chain attached found in ECM of animal cells can consist of up to 95% carbohydrate
Fibronectin
glycoprotein that helps animal cell attach to ECM
Intergrin
anmial cell a transmembrane receptor prtien that interconnect the ECM and Cytoskeleton
Plasmodesmata
open channel in the cell wall of plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell
Tight Junction
type of intercellular junction in animal cell that prevent the leakage of material between cell
Desmosome
type of intercellular junction in animal cell that funcin as a river
Gap Junction
type of intercellular junction in animal that allows the passage of materials between cell
Selective Permeability
property of biological membranes that allows them to regulate the passgae of substances
Amphiphathic
having both a hydrophilic region and hydrohphobic region
Fluid Mosiac Model
accepted model of cell membrane structure which envison the membrane as mosaic protein molecule drifting laterally in fluid bilayer of phsopholipids
Integral Proteins
transmembrane protein w/ hydrophobic region that extend into and often completely span hydrophobic interior of membrane w/ hydrophilic region in contact with aq solution on either side of memrbing lining the channel in the case of channel protein
Peripheral Protein
protein loosely bound to surface of a membrane or two part of an integral protein and not embedded in lipid bilayer
Glycolipid
lipid with covalenlty attached carbohydrate
Glycoprotein
protein with one or more carbohydrate covalently attached to it
Aquaporin
channel protein in plasma membrane of a plant animal or microorganism cell that specifically facilitaes osmosis teh diffusion of water across the membrane
Diffusion
spontaneous mvoement of a substance down its concentraton gradient from a reigon where it is more concentrated to region where it is less concentrated
Concentration Gradient
region along which the density of a chemical substance incrases or decrease
Passive Transport
difussion of a substance across a biological membrane with no expenditure of energy
Osmosis
diffusion of water across a selective permeable membrane
Toncity
ability of a solution surrounding a cell to cause that cell to gain or lose water
Isotonic
referring to a solution that when surrounding a cell has no effect on the passage of water into or out of the cell
Hypertonic
referring to the solution that when surrounding a cell will cause the cell to lose water
Hypotonic
referring to a solution that when surrounding a cell will cause the cell to take up water
Osmoregulation
regulation of a solute concentration and wateer balance by a cell or organism
Turgid
swollen or distended as in plant cell is walled cell becomes turgid if it has greater solute conncentration tansist surrounding resulting in entry of water
Flaccid
limp in a plant cell in surrounding where there is no tendency for water to enter the cell
Plasmolysis
phenomenon in walled cell in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall occurs when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environement
Facilitate Diffusion
spontaneous passage of molecule or ions across biological membrane with the assistance of spcific transmembrane transport proteins
Ion Channel
transmbembrane protein channel that allows a specific ion to flow across the memrbane down its concnetratin gradient
Gated Channel
transmembrane protein channel that opens or closes in response to a particualr stimulus
Active Transport
movemnt of a substance across a cell omembrane with an expenditure of energy against its concentration or electrochemical gradiant, mediated by specific transport proteins
Sodium Potassium Pump
transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cell that actively transport sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell
Electrochemical Gradiant
diffusion gradient of an ion, which is affected by both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane (chemical force) and ions tendency to move relative to the memrbane potnetial (electrical force)
Electronegative Pump
an ion transport protein taht generates voltage across a membrane
Proton Pump
active transport protein in a cell membrane that uses ATP to transport Hydrogen ion out of a cell against their concentration gradient, generating a membrane potential in the process
Co-Transport
coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one susbtrate to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient
Exocytosis
cellular secretion of biological molecule by the fusion of vesicle contianing them with the plasma membrane
Phagocytosis
type of endocytosis in which large particualte substance are taken up by a cell it is carried out by some protists and certain immune cells of animals
Pinocytosis
type of endocytosis in which cell ingest extracellular fluid and its dissolved solute
Receptor-Medicated Endocytosis
movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicle contain protein wiht receptor site specific to molecule being taken in enables a cell to acquire bulk quanities of specific substances
Ligand
molecule that binds specifically to another moleucle usually a larger one
Metabolism
totality of an organism chemical reaction consist of catabolic and anabolic pathway which manage material and energy resources of the organism
Metabolic Pathway
series of chemical reaction that either builds a complex molecule (anabolic pathway) or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds (catabolic pathway)
Catabolic Pathway
metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecule to simple compound
Anabolic Pathway
metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule form simpler compound
Bioenergentics
overall flow and transformation of energy in an organism the study of how energy flows through organism
Thermal Energy
total amount of kinetic energy due to the random motion of atoms or molecules in a body or matter (thermal energy) heat is energy in its most random form
Potential Energy
energy that matter possess because of its location or structure
Chemical Energy
energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction a form of potential energy
Thermodynamics
study of energy transformation that occur in a collection of matter
1st Law of Thermodynamics
energy can be transferred and transformed, but it can't be created nor destroyed
Entropy
measure of disorder or randomness
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
every energy transfer or transformation increase the entropy of the universe orderd forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat
Free-energy
portion of a biological system energy that can perform work when temeperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system
Exergonic Reaction
spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy
Gravational Motion
objects more spontaneously from a higher altitude to a lower one
Chemical Reaction
making and breaking of chemical bonds leading to changes in the composition of matter
Endergonic Reactoin
non-spontanous chemical reaction in which free energy is abosrbed from the surrounding
Energy Coupling
cellular metabolism, the use of energy release from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
Phosphorylated
referring to a molecule that is covalent bonded to a phosphate gorup
Catalyst
chemical agent that increases the rate of reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Activation Energy
amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start
Substrate
reactant on which an enzyme works
Enzyme Substrate Complex
temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecular
Active Site
specific portion of an enzyme thta binds the substrate by means of multiple weak interaction and that fomrs the pocket in which catalyst occurs
Induced Fit
induced by entry of the substrate the chagne in shape of the active site of an enezyme so that it binds more snuggly to the substrate
Co-enzyme
organic molecule serving as a co-factor most vitamins functin as coenzymes in meabtolic reaction
Competitive Inhibition
substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the activity site in palce of the susbtrate whose structure mimics
Non-Competitive Inhibition
substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by bindg to a location remote from the active site, changing the enzyme shape so that the active site no longer funtion effectively
Alosteric Regulation
bindign of a regulatory moelucle to a protein at one site that affect the funciton of the protien at a different site
Cooperativity
kind of allosteric regulation whereby a shape changing in one subunit of a protein caused by substrate binding is transmitted to all oter facilitating binding of subsequent substrate molecule
Feedback Inhibition
mehtod of metabolic control in which the end product of metabolic pathway act an as inhibiter of an enzyme within that path was
Fermentation
catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and produce a characteristic end product ethyl alcohol and lactic acid
Aerobic Respiration
catabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and organic molecule producing ATP most efficient catbolic pathwayand is carried out in most eukaryotic cell and prokaryotic organism
Cellular Repspiration
catabolic pathway of aerobic and anaerobic respiration which break down organic molecule for production of ATP
Redox Reaction
chemical reaction inovling the complete or partial transfer of one or more electrons form one reactatn to another
Oxidation
loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction
Reduction
addition of electosn to a substance involved in a redox reaction
Reducing Agent
electron donor in a redox reaction
Oxidizing Agent
electron acceptor in a redox reaction
NAD+
coenzyme that can accept an electron and acts as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain
Electron Transport Chain
sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane protein) htat shuttle electrons during the redox reaction that realseas energy used to make ATP
Glycolysis
splitting of glucose int o pyruvate glycosis occurs in alomsot all living cells surviving as the starting point for fermentation or cellular respiration
Citric Acid Cycle
chemical cycle inovlving eight steps that complete the metabolic breakdown of gucose molecules begun in glycolsis by oxidinzing pyruvate to cabron dioxide occurs within th emitochondrion in eukaryotic cels and in the cytosol of prokaryotes Second stage in cellular respiration
Oxidative Phosphorlyation
production of ATP using energy derived form the redox reaction of an electron transport chain third stage in cellular respiration
Substrate- Level Phosphorylation
formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP form an intermediate substrate in catabolism
Acetyl CoA
the entry compound for the citric acid cycel in cellular respiration formed from a fragment of yruvate attached to a coenzyme
Cytochrome
an iron containing protein that is a a component of electron transport chain in mitochondria and chloroplast of eukaryotic cell and plasma membrane of prokaryotic cell
Chemisosmosis
enrgy-coupling mehcanism that uses energy stred in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work such as the synthesis of ATP most ATP synthesis in cells occur by chemiosmosis
Proton Motive Force
potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient genergate by pumping of hydrogen ions across a biolgoical membrane during chemiosmosis
Alcohol Fermenation
glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
Lactic Acid Fermentation
glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvate to lactic with no release of carbon dioxide
Obligate Anaerobic
organism that only carries out fermentation of anerobic respiration organisms cant use oxygen and could be polished by it
Facilative Anaerboic
organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to anaerobic respiration or fermenatn if oxygen is not present
Beta Oxidation
meatbolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to 2carbon fragments that enter that citric acid cycle as acetyl COA
Cell Divison
reproduction of cell
Somatic Cells
any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg
Gamete
haploid reproductive cell such as an egg or sperm gametes while during sexual reproduction to prodcue a diploid zygote
Chromatin
complex of DNA and proteins that make up a eukaroytic chromosome exist in dispersed from as mass of very long thin fibers that are not visible
Sister Chromatids
either of two copies of a dupilicated chromsome attached to each toher by proteins at the centromere and sometimes along the atom while jioned two sister chromatid make up one chromatid are eventually seperated during mitosis or meisosi II
Centromere
specialized region of the chromsome where two sister chromatid are most closely attached
Mitosis
process of nuclear divsion in eukaryotic cell conventionally divided into five phases prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase mitosis conserves chromosome number by allocating replicated chormosome equally to each daugher nucleoli
Cytokinsis
division of the cytoplasm to form two seperate daughter cell immediately after mitosis , meiosis I and II
Meiosis
modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organims consisting of two rounds of cell division but only round of DNA replicatn it results in cell with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell
Mitotic (M) phase
phase of the cell cycel that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
Interphase
period in the cell cycle when the cell is not divding during interphase cellular metablic activity is high chromosome and organelles are duplicated and cell may increase interpahse accounts for 90% of the cell cycle
G1 phase
first gap or growth phase of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins
S Phase
synthesis pahase of the cell cycle the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated
G2 Phase
second gap or growth phase of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
Prophase
first stage of mitosis in which the chromatin condenses the mitotic spindle beings to form and the nucleolous diappears but the nucleus remains intact
Prometaphase
second stage of mitosis in which discrete chromsome consist of identical sister chromatid appear the nuclear envelope fragment and the spindle microtubule attach the kinetochore of the chromosome
Metaphase
third stage of mitosis in which the spindle is compelte and the chromosome attached to microtbubules at their kintochore are all aligned at the metaphase plate
Anaphse
fourth stage of mitosis in which the chromatids of each chromosome have sperated and daugher chromosome are moving to the poles of the cell
Telophase
fifth and final stage of mitosis in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun
Mitotic Spindle
assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosome during mitosis
Centrosome
structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells important during cell division fucntions as a microtubule-organizing center has 2 centrioles
Aster
radical array of short microtubule that extends from each centrosome twoard the plasma membrane in animal cell undergoing mitosis
Kinetochore
structure of proteins attahced to the centromere that linkes each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
Metaphase Plate
imaginary plane midwaybetween the two pols of a cell in metaphase on which the centrosomes of all the duplicated chromsome are located
Cleavage
process of cytokinesis in animal cell characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane the succession of rapid cell division without significant growth during early embryonic develpment that converts the zygote to a ball of cell
Clevage Furrow
first sign of clevage in an animal cell a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate
Cell Plate
double-membrane across the midline of a divding plant cell between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis i
Binary Fission
method of asexual reproduction by divison in half in prokaryotes binary fision does not involved mtisosi sbut in single-celled eukaryotes that undero binary fission mitosis is patt of the process
Orgin of Replication
site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins consiting of a specific sequence of nucleotides
Cell Cycle
ordered sequence of events in the life cycle of a cell from its orgin in the divisoni into ttow eukaryotic cell cycle is composed of inerphase (G1,S, G2) and M phase (including mtisosi and cytokinesis)
Cell Cycle Control System
cyclically operating set of molecules in the eukaryotic cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
Checkpoint
control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle
G0 Phase
nondividng state occupied by cells hta have left the cell cyle
Cyclin
cellular protein that occurs in a cyclinally fluctutating concentration and that plays an important role in regulating the cell cycle
Cycling-Dependant Kinase (CDK)
protein kinase that is active only when attached to particular cyclin
MPF (maturation promoting factor)
protein complex required for a cell to progress form later interpahase to mitosis active form consist of cycling and protein kinase
Growth Factor
protein that must be present in the extra cellular environment for the growth and normal developement of certain type of cells a local regulate that acts on a nearby celsl toe stimulate cell prolificaon and differentiation
Density-Dependent Inhibiiton
phenomenon observed in normal animal cells tha causes them to stop dividing iwhe nthey come into contact with one another
Anchroage Dependence
requirement that cell must be attached to a substratum in order to dividie
transformation
conversion of normal animal cell to cancerous cell a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimlilation of externa lDNA by a cell
Benign tumor
mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of its orgin
Malignant Tumor
cancerous tumor thati s invasive enought to impair the functions of one or more organs
Metasis
spread of cancer cell to locations distant form their original site
Heredity
transmission of traits from one generation to the next
Variation
differnces between members of the same species
genes
discrete unit of hereidty information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA
locus
specific place along the length of a chromosome where a givengeen is located
asexual reproduction
generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs w/out the fusion of gametes in most cases the offspring are identical to the parent
clone
lineage of genetically identicial individuals or cells in a popular usage a sing indvidiual to another individual as a verb to make one or more genetic replicas of an individual or a cell
sexual reproduction
type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from gametes of the parents
life cycle
generation-to-generation sequence of stages in reproductive history of an organism
somatic cell
any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg
karyotype
display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape
homologus chromsome
pair of chromosome of the same length,centromere position, and starting pattern that possess genes for the same charctersat corresponds loci one homologous chromosome inherited from the organism father, and the other from the mother
sex chromsome
a chromosome responsible for determining the sex of indvidual
autosome
chromsome that is not directly involved in dtermining sex no a sex chromosome
diploid cell
cell containing two sets of chromosomes (ZN) one set inhertied from both parents
haploid cell
cell containing only one set of chromsomes
fertilization
the union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote the addition of mineral nutriends to the soil
zygote
diploid product of the union of the haploid gamets during fertilization a fertilized
Meiosis
modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organism consisting of two rounds of cell divsion but only one round of DnA replication it results in cells with hafl the number of chromsome sets as the orignial cell
Alternation of Generation
life cycle in which there is both multicellular diploid form the sporophyte and multicellular, haploid form, the gamete tophyte characteristic of plants and some algae
Sporophyte
organism that have alternation of generations teh multicellular diploid form that resutls from the union of spores by meiosis that develop int ogametophyte
Spore
life cycle of plant or algae undergoing aleternation of generation, a haploid cell produced in the sporophyte by meisois a spore can divide by mitosis to devvelop into multicellular haploid indvidual the gameotyphte without fusing wiht anoher cell in fungi a haploid cell producecd a mycelium afer germination
Gametoyphyte
in organisms that have alternation of generations, multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis the haploid gametes unite and develop into sporophyte
Meiosis I
first division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organism tht results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets are the original cell
Meiosis II
second division of a two-stage process of cell divison in sexually reproducing organism that results in cells with half the numbner of chromsome sets as the original cell
Synaposis
pairing and physical connection of replicated homologus chromsome during prophase I of Meiosis
Crossing Over
reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromosome chromatids during prophase I of meiosis
Chiasma
x-shaped micoscopically visible region where homologus nonsister chromatids have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meisos the two omologys remaiing associtaed due to sister chromatid cohesion
Recombinant Chromosome
chromsoome created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromsome
Character
observale heritable feature
Trait
any detectable varient in genetic character
Ture breeding
referring to plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self polinate
Hybridization
in genetic the mating or crossing of two true breeding varities
F1 Generation
first final or hybrid offspring in a series of genetic crosses
F2 Generation
offspring resulting from interbreeding of hybrid F1 generation
Allele
any of the alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotype effects
Doinant Allele
an allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote
Recessive Allele
an allele whose phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterzygote
Law of Segregation
Mendel's first law stating that the two allele in a pair segregate into different gamete during gamete formation
Punnett Square
diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the predicted resutls of random fertilization in a genetic cross
Homozygous
having two identical alleles for a given gene
Heterozygous
having two different alleles for a given gene
Phenotype
physical and physiologoical traits of an organism which are determined by its genetic makeup
Genotype
genetic makeup of set of allele of an organism
Testcross
breeding of an organism of unknown gentic the ratio of phenotypes in offspring reveal unknown genotype
Monohybrid
organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest all the offspring from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles
Dihybrid
organism that is heterozygous with respect to two genes of interest all the offspring from a cross between parents doubly homozygous for diferent alleles
Law of independent assortment
mendel's second law stating that each pair of allele segregate or assorts independtly of each other pair during gamete formation applies when genes for two characters are located on different pairs of homologous chromosome
Complete Dominance
situation in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable
Incomplete Dominance
situation in which the phenotype of heterozygote is intermediate between the pheontypes of individual homozygous for eitehr alleel
Co-Dominance
situation in which the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote because both allele affect the phenotype in seperate distinguishable ways
Spore
life cycle of plant or algae undergoing aleternation of generation, a haploid cell produced in the sporophyte by meisois a spore can divide by mitosis to devvelop into multicellular haploid indvidual the gameotyphte without fusing wiht anoher cell in fungi a haploid cell producecd a mycelium afer germination
Gametoyphyte
in organisms that have alternation of generations, multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis the haploid gametes unite and develop into sporophyte
Meiosis I
first division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organism tht results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets are the original cell
Meiosis II
second division of a two-stage process of cell divison in sexually reproducing organism that results in cells with half the numbner of chromsome sets as the original cell
Synaposis
pairing and physical connection of replicated homologus chromsome during prophase I of Meiosis
Crossing Over
reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromosome chromatids during prophase I of meiosis
Chiasma
x-shaped micoscopically visible region where homologus nonsister chromatids have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meisos the two omologys remaiing associtaed due to sister chromatid cohesion
Recombinant Chromosome
chromsoome created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromsome
Character
observale heritable feature
Trait
any detectable varient in genetic character
Tay-Sachs Disease
human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele for dysfunction enzyme, leading to accumulation of lipids in the brain desnegration of moter and mental performance usually beomce manifest a few months after birth and folowed by death in a few years
Pleiotropy
ability of a single gene to have multiple effects
Epistasis
type of gene interaction in which one gene alters the phenotypic effects of another gene that is independently inherited
Quantitive Character
heritable feature htat varies continuously over a range rather than in an either or fashion
Polygenic Inheritence
an addtive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character
Norm of Reaction
the range of phenotype produced by a single genotype due to environmental influence
Multifactoral
referring to a phenotypic character trait is influenced by mulitple gene and environmental factor
Pedigree
diagram of a family tree showing the occurence of heritablet charcters in parents and offspring over multiple generations
Carriers
genetics an individual who is heterozygous at a given gentic locus with one normal allel and one recessive allele the heterozygotes is phenotypically dominant for the character determined by genet but can pass on the recessive allele to offspring
Cystic Fibrosis
human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection fatal if untreated
Sickle-Cell Disease
human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele that results in the subsittion of a single amino acid in a globin polypeptide that is part of the hemoglobin protein charcterized by deformed red blood cells taht can lead to humerous symptoms
Hunnington's disease
human gentic disease cuasded by a dominant allele characterized by uncontrollable body movements and degeneration of the nerovous system usually fatal 10-20 years afer onset of symptoms
aminocenitesis
technique of prenatal diagnosis in which aminotic fluid obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted to the uterus is analyzed to genetic and cognetial defects in the fetus
Chorionic virus sampling
technique of prenatal diagnosis in which a small sample of the fetal portion of the placental is removed and analyzed to detect certain ggenetic and cogential defects in the fetus
Chromsome theory of inheriteance
basic principle in biology stating that genes are lcoated on chromsome and that the behavior of chromsome during meiosis accounts for inheritance pattern
Wild Type
an individual with a phenotype most commonly observed in natural populations
Sex-Linked Gene
gene located on a sex chromosome resulting in distnictive pattern of inheritance
Duchenne Musclae Dystrophy
human gentic disease cause by a sex-linked recessive allele characterized by progressive weakening and loss of muscle tissue
Hemophilia
human genetic disease caused by sex-linked recessive allele in resulting in the abscence of one or more blood-clotting protiens characterized by excessive bleed following in jry
Barr Body
dense object lying along the insidee of the nuclear envelope in cells of female,representing a highly condensed inactivated x chromssome
Linked Gene
gene located close enough togher on a chromosome that they tend to be inherited together
Genetic Recombination
general term for the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent
Parental Type
an offspring with a phenotype that matness one of the potential phenotypes
Recombinant
an offspring whose pheontype differs from that of the parents
Crossing Over
reciporcal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids
Gentic Map
orderedd list of gentic locci along a chromsome
Linkage Map
genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologus chromsome
Map Unit
unit of measurement of the distance beween gene one map unit is equvialent to 1% recombniant frequence
Cytogentic Map
chart of a chromsome that lcoates gene with respect to chromsomal features distinguishable in microscope
Nondisjunction
an error in meiosis or mitosis in which members of a pair of homologus chromsome or a proir of sister chromatids fail to seperate properly from each other
Aneuploidy
chromsomal aberriaton in which one or more chormosome are present in extra copies or deficient in number
Monosomic
reffering to a cell that has only one copy of a prticular chromsome instead of the normal two
Trisomic
referring to a diploid cell that has three of a particular chromsome instead of the normal two
Polypidy
chromsomal alternation in which the organism possess mroe than two complete chromsome set it is the resutlto of an accident cell division
duplicaion
aberration in achromsome structure due to fasion with fragment from a homologus chromsome such that a portion of a chromsome is duplicated
Translocation
aberation in a chromsome structure resulting from attachemetn of chromsomal fragment to a non homolgoous chromosome during protein sytneehs is the third stage in the elongation cycle when the RNA carrying the grwoing polypetid e mores from the A site to p Site on the ribosome the transport of organic nutrients in the pholem of vasucalr plans
Down Syndrom
human genetic disease caused by the presence of an extra chromsome 21 characterized by mental retardation heart adn respitaory defects
Genomic imprinting
phenomenon in which an expression of an allele is inherited from the male or female parent