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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is osseus tissue?
It is a kind of connective tissue that contains matrix (storage area) for minerals. Osseous tissue forms the rigid part of the bone organs that make up the skeletal system. It is a dynamic tissue
What is matrix?
It is a storage area for minerals which entraps the cells. Osteoblasts build the matrix before becoming osteocytes. Bone is formed by the hardening of this matrix entrapping the cells.
What gives bones flexibility?
What are hydroxyapatites?
It is a bone mineral, a form of calcium apatite. It is 50% of bone mass.
What are the five skeletal functions?
Support, protection, blood cell formation, mineral reservoir and a base for muscle movements
What is a sesamoid bone?
It is a bone embedded within a tendon
What is the location for interstitial growth?
The epiphyseal plate
What is an osteon?
It is a basic structural unit of osseous tissue.
comprised of cylinders of matrix arranged around central canal, enclosing BVs and nerves
osteons align parallel to the long axis of bone in the diaphysis
they are formed by osteoblasts during the process of calcification
What is the compact bone structure and function?
Compact bone is formed by osteons. Its function is to protect the marrow and to give structure to the bone.
What is the spongy bone structure and function?
Spongy bone is a network of trabeculae (hardened bars), which is filled with red marrow. It provides strength but is also lightweight
- found in epiphysis
- site of hemopoiesis (formation of blood cells)
When in flat bone, it is wedged in between compact bone layers and is called diploe.
What is diploe?
It is the spongy bone structure (or tissue) of the internal part of short, irregular, and flat bones
What is a stem cell?
It is a cell that can differentiate into diverse and specialized cell types. Osteogenic cells are a type of a stem cells found in persteum/endosteum
What is a amitotic cell?
A cell that does not reproduce by mitosis. For example, osteoblasts and osteocytes are replaced by a osteogenic cell instead of dividing by mitosis.
Compare the structure of flat bone vs long bone
Flat bones do not have yellow marrow or the epiphyseal plate.
What is ossification?
It is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts.
Functions: 1) iniatial formation of skeletal model in fetus (at 6-8 weeks post fertilization) and 2) involved in remodeling and repair of bones
There are two types of ossification: Intramembranous ossification is formation of flat bones from fibrous tissue, while endochondral ossification involves formation of long bone from a cartilage template
What is calcification?
It is mineralizing of tissue which is continuous throughout life. In other words, it is the process in which calcium salts build up in soft tissue, causing it to harden
What is calculus?
It is an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the body, chiefly in hollow organs or their passages. Called also stone.
What is an inhibor?
it is a type of receptor that blocks Ca+ from entering PM or soft tissue
What are the symptoms of hypocalcemia?
Hypocalcemia is a condition in which the individual's level of blood calcium is too low. The symptoms are: hyper-excitability, anxiety, muscle spasms, seizures, and finally, congestive heart failure
What are the types of marrow, their locations and functions?
Red marrow (looks like thick blood) is hemopoietic. it is found in vertebrae, ribs, sternum, pelvic girdle and proximal heads of femur and humerus in adults. Yellow marrow is in the diaphysis of long bones in adults. It stores fat which the body consumes as a last resort in cases of extreme starvation. It also turns into red marrow in emergencies such as blood loss or anemia.
Gelatinous marrow - old age
Yellow marrow replaced with reddish jelly anemia in the elderly
What is the location for hemopoiesis?
Red marrow produces blood, so anywhere in flat bones and in the epiphisis of long bone.
What are the 4 bone cells and functions?
Osteogenic cells – stem cells in persteum/endosteum
Osteoblasts – BUILDS matrix (mineralized, amiotic)Osteocytes – trapped osteoblasts in the matrix that maintain tissue (amitotic)
Osteoclasts – derived from WBCs, dissolve matrix to release minerals into the blood for development, maintenance + repair
What is ectopic ossification?
It is a pathologic condition in which bone forms in tissues other than osseous tissue
What are chondrocytes?
the only cells found in healthy cartilage
What are the hormones affecting bone grown?
They are the pituatary gland homones, thyroid hormones, as well as estrogens and androgens
What are they hormones that increase epiphyseal activity during puberty?
Androgens (testasterone) and estrogens
What are the hormones that close the epiphyseal plate?
Androgens (testasterone) and estrogens
What is the term for Ca deficienty?
What are the 4 vital functions of Ca?
Nerve transmission, muscle contraction, enzymes, blood clotting
What are the 2 ossification processes?
Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification
What is the term for increasing bone thickness?
Appositional growth
What are the 4 vital vitamins/minerals for healthy bones?
A, C, D, hydroxyapaties
What are the hormones that increase blood Ca levels?
Parathyroid secretes PTH which raises blood levels of Ca Phosphate
What are the hormones that lower blood Ca levels/secreted from?
Thyroid secretes Calcitonin and decreases blood levels of Ca Phosphate
What are the hormones that regulare bone homeostasis and how?
They are - PTH, Calcitonin, and Sex hormones, growth hormones, Insulin-like growth factors
What is the purpose of remodeling bone?
It renews tissue before deterioration sets in, keeps bone strongest, and replaces damage due to injuries
What is the term for longitudinal growth?
Interstitial growth?
Which vitamins are necessary for maintaining osteoblasts/osteoclasts activity?
Vitamin A
How are the kidnesy involved in maintaining healthy bones?
They secrete access calcium
What is the role of skin in good bone health?
Skin produces vitamin D
What are the steps in fracture repair?
Fracture hematoma, soft callus formation, hard callus, remodeling
What is an open reduction?
Surgical intervention
What is Paget's disease?
Accelerated bone growth?
What is the most common bone cancer?
What is the loss of articular cartilage?
What is osteoporosis?
Loss of estrogen - loss of calcium, bone gets weak
What is OA
What is RA?
Rheumatoid Arthritis - autoimmune disease