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63 Cards in this Set

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In organisms that reproduce sexually, _(what)_ are the sex cells that carry the genetic information from each parent
Haploid gametes
In the human male and female reproductive systems, each system contains paired primary sex organs called _(what)_, which contain _(what)_ that give rise to gametes.
Gonads, germ cells
In a secondary oocyte meiosis is arrested in metaphase II until
Until fertilization occurs
The hormone released from the hypothalamus that stimulates release of LH and FSH that stimulate the testes in the male and the ovaries in the female is
Gonadotropin releasing hormone
In humans if a preembryo splits before day 12 of development _(what)_ are usually formed
Identical twins
A gene called the _(what)_ gene on the Y chromosomes must be activated at about week seven of embryonic development for development of the male sex organs and glands
SRY
A vasectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vas deferens are severed, and then tied. How would this cause fertility.
Sperm cannot move to the urethra
A tubal ligation is a surgical procedure in which the fallopian tubes are severed, and then tied. How would this cause sterility?
Oocytes cannot move to the uterus
Biochemical produced in a gland or organ that travel through the blood stream and alter the metabolism of specific target cells are
Hormones
The endocrine gland that produces hormones that regulate blood glucose levels is the
Pancreas
Which of the following is not typically a characteristic of a steroid hormone
They bind to a receptor on the surface of the cell
All of the glands of the vertebrate endocrine system are regulated by the
Hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Which of the following would be the primary target for anti-diuretic hormone
Kidney
A person suffering from acromegaly produces too much _(what)_ as a _(what)_
Growth hormone, Adult
To prevent swollen thyroid glands many nations add iodine to
Salt
The hormone produced by the adrenal gland that constricts blood vessels and slows digestion is
Epinephrine
The hormone that stimulates glycogen to be broken down to glucose is
Glucagon
Type II diabetes is strongly associated with
Obesity
Which of the following could occur in Type 1 diabetes
A decrease in insulin secreted by the pancreas
When blood glucose levels fall, which of the following occur?
An increased secretion of glucagon
Which of the following would you expect in the blood of a patient with hyperthyroidism?
A decrease in TSH and an increase in thyroid hormones
BPA would be considered which of the following
An endocrine disruptor
The presence of the Gcm-2 gene in zebrafish, chickens, mice, and humans suggests which of the following?
All four species have a common ancestor
ATP is required by cells for
DNA replication, movement, production of proteins and growth
Why does a high metabolic rate mean that an animal has a huge demand for oxygen?
Oxygen is used by the mitochondria to obtain maximal energy from food
A Diuretic is
A substance that increases the volume of urine
What drives the movement of carbon dioxide from tissue into the bloodstream?
Diffusion down a concentration gradient
The influenza viruses that infect man usually are derived from a type that could also infect
Birds and pigs
Which of the following diseases is not caused by viruses
Diabetes
Viruses
Are smaller than cells
The host range of a virus is
The type of organisms or cells that a virus can infect
The correct sequence of the stages of viral replication is
Attachment-penetration-synthesis-assembly-release
The enzyme that HIV uses to convert its RNA into DNA is
Reverse transcriptase
Our most potent weapon in the fight against viruses is
Vaccinations
Many doctors recommend that all women be vaccinated for HPV before they become sexually active. Which step in the viral life cycle would first be blocked by a vaccine?
Attachment
Oral infections with herpes simplex virus 1 can lie dormant in nerve cells for years, and when a patient becomes stressed, the virus is released, forming cold sores on the lips. Where will the virus be while dormant in the nerve cell?
Integrated in the nerve cell chromosomes
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) only affects a specific class of cells in the immune system called T helper cells, and not other types of T cells. Which is the best explanation for this observation.
Only T helper cells have the correct receptor on their cell surface
The influenza virus contains an RNA gnome. Every year the common flu vaccine is designed to protect against three different strains of the influenza virus. Why do scientists typically have to make a new vaccine every year.
Because the virus can mutate into new strains
Poliomyelitis is RNA virus that can invade the nervous system and cause paralysis within a matter of hours. Olio has been virtually eliminated world-wide by which of the following?
Vaccination
It has been difficult to generate drugs to treat AIDS for which reason
HIV mutates rapidly because reverse transcriptase lacks proofreading
Which of the following is true of HIV?
It is an enveloped virus
The genetic information viruses
Can be DNA or RNA
A capsid is
A protein coat of a virus
Viruses that infect bacteria are
Bacteriophages
A reason or reasons given by scientists as to why viruses are not considered living organisms include
Viruses do not reproduce on their own
Viruses are not considered to be alive, yet they share this ability with living cells
They can evolve
The domain (domains) that contain prokaryotes is
Both archaea and bacteria
The region of a prokaryotic cell where the bacterial chromosome (DNA) is located is the
Nucleoid
The structures of prokaryotes that are used to transfer DNA from once cell to another
Sex pili
A type of horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes in which a cell receives DNA from another cell through sex pili is
Conjugation
The three most common shapes of bacteria are
Spherical, rod-shaped, and spiral
A microbiologist gram stains a bacterium and finds the bacterium to be pink to red in color, this identifies
The bacterium as gram negative
Clostridium tetani, the bacterium that causes tetatun, can survive in soil for up to 40 years. It is most likely in which of the following structures.
An endospore
Methicillin inhibits cell wall production. Why does this make it an effective antibiotic?
Human cells do not have cell walls
One way that antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria arise is that patients do not follow the instructions for taking the drug. In a typical scenario, a drug may be prescribed for a week, but the patient may stop taking it after 2-3 days if they start to feel better. Then when the infection flares up again, they take the rest of their dose. Why would this scenario lead to drug resistance?
The first round of treatment selects for resistant bacteria, which then increase in number
An asexual process used by prokaryotes, in which replicated DNA and other cell parts are distributed into two daughter cells is called
Binary fission
A type of horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes in which a cell takes up naked DNA without cell to cell contact is
Transformation
Type of horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes in which a cell receives bacterial DNA from a bacteriophage is
Transduction
Chloroplasts and mitochondria have relatively small circular chromosomes which supports the endosymbiotic theory that they arose from which of the following?
Bacteria
Cyanobacteria are phototrophic. Which of the following would they also be considered?
Autotrophic
Many drugs are produced by placing human genes into bacteria. The bacteria then transcribe and translate these genes into functional human proteins that can then be purified and given as drugs. The fact that this process works is consistent with which statement?
Humans and bacteria share a common ancestor.
Streptomyces are aerobic soil bacteria that produce over 2/3rds of our antibiotics of natural origin. Why might a bacterium produce antibiotics?
To kill competing bacteria of different species.
Escherichia coli and salmonella can live in our intestines in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are considered which of the following?
Facultative anaerobes