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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does a mutagen cause?
This causes a change in the genetic material of the cell
How has gene duplication played a critical role in evolution?
It produces redundant copies of existing genes, which are then free to mutate and adopt new functions
What is an allele?
This is the alternate form of the gene that is produced from mutations
What is a frameshift mutation?
This is caused by the insertion or deletion of of nucleotides in a DNA sequence
What is a base substitution mutation?
This is also called a point mutation. This causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide
What are the 3 types of base substitutions called and what do each do?
Nonsense- This results in a premature stop codon.

Missense- This is a single nucleotide change that then codes for a different amino acid

Silent- This is an alteration in the DNA sequence that does not change the amino acid sequence
What is a codon?
A codon is a group of three bases that can specify one amino acid
Who is Lyell
He wrote the book that greatly influenced Darwin's thinking while on the Beagle?
What is the climate of the Argentinean Pampas?
What did Darwin find at the fossil site in Punta Alta?
He found evidence of extinction
Why do some species employ both mitosis and meiosis, whereas other species use only mitosis?
They need both if they are producing animal gametes
Explain the difference between sister chromatids and homologous chromosomes.
Sister chromatids are formed when a chromosome replicates during DNA replication. They are identical as long as no crossing over occurred. Homologous chromosomes are the chromosomes an individual inherits from their parents. Of the 46 chromosomes, they make 23 pairs. One homologous chromosome comes from the father, and the other comes from the mother. Sister chromatids are identical copies of each other
Mitosis results in the formation of how many cells; meiosis results in the formation of how many cells
2 diploid... 4 haploid.

In mitosis a cell that has doubled its genetic material divides to produce two diploid daughter cells. In meiosis a cell that has doubled its genetic material undergoes two rounds of division, producing four haploid cells
What is crossing over?
This is the exchange of homologous portions of nonsister chromatids
What is meiosis?
Meiosis is a type of cell division that produces gametes
During what phase of meiosis does crossing over occur?
Prophase I
What is the principle of dominance?
This states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
What does homozygous mean?
This means that organisms have 2 identical alleles for a trait