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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What, scientifically speaking, is science?

A way of thinking. Not a way of knowing.

How does a scientific theory differ from any other theory?

Based on observations of phenomena which results in generating many questions. This leads to gathering evidence ultimately leading to answers.

How are science and technology related?

Technology is the product of science. Not science in and of itself.

How to facts differ from knowledge?

Things observed in nature are facts (the Sun rose this morning).

What is required of a hypothesis, scientifically speaking?

Required to be a testable statement. Testable through experimentation accounting for a fact or set of facts.

What does true science require? How can I trust what is being presented is not purely crap to make you buy a product?

What are the limitations of true science?

What is inductive reasoning and in what situations is it used?

Produces general conclusions based on specific observations. (i.e. since all these things do a common action, they are a group)

-Cell theory ex: many organisms have been studied and they are all made of cells. Therefore all organisms are made of cells.

What is deductive reasoning and in what types of situations is it used?

Produces conclusions from generalizations to a specific result. (i.e. "if...then" logic)

-Cell theory ex: if all organisms are made of cells, then humans are made of cells.

How are scientific truth, knowledge, wisdom and understanding related?

ST: observations of nature using senses or equipment (microscope, etc)

K: what we "think" we know about the truth. Imperfect and subject to revision.

W: realization that truth and knowledge aren't the same thing.

Be able to calculate the actual size of an object given the number that can fit across a given diameter of the field of view.

(1/# across)×lens diameter

Be able to calculate a drawing magnification given an actual size and a drawing size.

Magnification = drawing size / actual size

Be able to convert cm, mm, and mcm.

1cm = 10mm = 1000mcm

Be able to identify parts of a microscope.

Know the rules of using the compound microscope.

Why is evolution know as "Biology's Grand Unifying Theory"?

What is Darwinism? Know what the components of Darwinism are and be able to explain them.

natural selection, etc.

What is the name of Charles Darwin's book in its entirety?

On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life

What is meant by geographic and reproductive isolation?

Geographic isolation refers to the separation of two populations by physical boundaries, such as rivers, mountains, etc. Reproductive isolation occurs when two populations no longer produce viable offspring.

Understand the concept of a species.

Can produce viable offspring

Know how to properly write a scientific name.

Italics if typed, underlined if handwritten

Genus capitalized, specific epithet not.

Ursus americanus (but italicized)

Know the order of the hierarchy of classification.


King Phillip Crossed the Ocean For Good Sex

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Why might classification, as we know it today, change?

new discoveries, more fine classification

Know the components of cell walls of all the organisms covered in this unit.

K Variables: peptidoglycall

K Plantae: cellulose

K Protista: cellulose (if present)

K Fungi: chitin

K Animalia: no cell wall

What is the relationship between cells, a tissue and an organ?

Group of cells work together to form tissue. Tissue works together to form organs...

What is responsible for the vast variety of life on this planet?


What are the names of the three scientists who discovered the DNA molecule?

Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins.

Where is DNA located in eukaryotes?

within the nucleus

Where is DNA located in prokaryotes?

in a coiled loop in the cytoplasm (nucleoid?)

Diploid cells vs. Haploid cells

Diploid: 2 full sets of chromosomes

Haploid: 1 full set of chromosomes

Mitosis vs. Meiosis

Mitosis: 2 identical daughters

Meiosis: 4 uinque granddaughters from 2 identical daughters

What are gametes? Which groups produce them? Haploid or diploid?

Gametes themselves are diploid - they form by fusion of two haploids (meiosis)

What are spores? Which groups produce them? Haploid or diploid?

What is a virus?

a microscopic organism consisting of genetic material (RNA or DNA) surrounded by a protein, lipid (fat), or glycoprotein coat. Neither prokaryotic nor eukaryotic. Must reproduce within another cell.

Why is the kingdom Monera called the Kingdom of Superlatives? Be able to list/describe them.

Oldest, smallest, reproduce fastest, most abundant, only with prokaryotes

How do eubacteria differ from archaebacteria and cyanobacteria?

Eubacteria are younger and smaller

Identify the Gram reaction.

+ purple

- pink

Identify cell shape given description.

Bacillus - rod

Cocci - spherical

Sprillum - spiral

Be able to explain how we can tell if a bacterium ferments specific sugars.

Red test tube reaction?

Given the location of growth in a thyoglycollate broth, tell if it is aerobic, anaerobic, or facultative. Explain why.

Top: aerobic - more air

Bottom: anaerobic - no air

Middle: facultative - no preference

Why might bacterium form spores?

Three types of habitats you can find extremophiles in.

Halophiles: salty

Thermophiles: extreme heat

Acidophiles: acid

Where in your body might you find methanogens?


Be able to define various nutritional relationships and identify them based on a description.

Be able to define the methods of nutritional acquisition and identify them based on a description.

Heterotroph, photosynthetic


What is nitrogen fixation and what is its importance?

Converts atmospheric N2 into N2 compounds

How did cyanobacteria change the early Earth?

Added O2 to atmosphere

What is the endosymbiosis/endosymbion theory?

Prokaryote -> mitochondria/chloroplast

What 3 steps have been listed as to how endosymbiosis occured?

1. Invagination of cell membrane to make nucleus and ER

2. Phagocytosis if prokaryotic cell that uses O2 -> acquire energy - cellular respiration

3. Ingest photosynthetic prokaryote -> chloroplast

What is the evidence that supports endosymbiosis?

Mitochondria and chloroplasts have own DNA, enzyme systems like bacteria, and ribosomes like bacteria.

Which protist is thought to have given rise to the kingdom Plantae?

Protista - algaes

How to protists reproduce (mostly)?

Asexual mitosis

Know the composition of all protists having cell walls.


Which phyla lack cell walls?

Animalia, euglenophyta, eubacteria, prokaryotes

Which phyla contain multicellular organisms?

Chlorophyta, rhodophyta, phaeophyta, protista, green algae

Which phyla contain single celled organisms?

Prokaryote, eubacteria, cyanobacteria, archaebacteria, diatoms, dinoflagellate, euglenoid, ameobas, algae, ciliates

Be able to identify the mode of motility for phyla having motile organisms.

Learn the scientific names of organisms studied in the lab.

Know how to distinguish one phylum of alga from another.

What specific feature places an organism in P. Sarcodina?


What specific feature places an organism in P. Ciliophora?

Cilia, most complex

Know the ecological and economic significance of each phylum.