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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Whats a pathogen?

A disease producing agent.

Describe Innate

First line of defence,

Broad, non-specifics.

-Skin and body secretions




Describe Acquired

Second Line of Defence

Tangelled, Specific



What is attachment? ( a stage of virus cycles )

Proteins in the tails recognize proteins on the host cell.

What is Entry? ( a stage of virus cycles )

Virus inserts its nucleic acid into host cell

What is Replication? ( a stage of virus cycles )

viral nucleic acid uses cells machinery to copy its DNA

What is Assembly? ( a stage of virus cycles )

Protein capsid are made from virus intruction

What is Lysis? ( a stage of virus cycles )

host cell ruptures release new virus particles

Formation of a provirus ( a stage of virus cycles )

viral nucleic acid inserts int hose chromosome, making a provirus

Reverse Transcription ( a stage of virus cycles )

uses special enzyme called "reverse transcriptase" to convert viral RNA into DNA and camoflauge it completely.

three things that viruses are composed of.

-nucleic acid ( DNA / RNA )

-protein capsid (protects DNA)

-membraneous envelope.

4 types of virus shapes

1.poly hedral ( many sides)

2.helical ( cylindrical )

3. circular

4. Complex ( alien looking thing with the pentagon and 3 legs.

name the three cycles of virus replication

1. Lytic cycle

2. Lysogenic cycle

3. Retroviral Cycle

5 shapes of bacteria

1. Cocci (spheres)

2. Bacilli (rod shaped)

3. Vibrio (comma shaped)

4. spirilla (spirals

5. spirochaetes (coiled)

4 types of bacteria clustering

1. Exiting in singles ( mono- )

2. Other form pairs ( diplo- )

3. chains ( strepto- )

4. clusters ( staphylo- )

The most common procedure used to characterise bacteria is the...

Gram Stain

Gram positive bacteria will stain...


Gram negative bacteria will stain


Explain Gram Positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria have a thicker, more dense cell wall that holds in the violet stain, causing them to remain purple

Explain Gram Negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria have a thinner cell wall involving more membranes, which allows the violet stain to leave and the cells appear pink instead

Vaccines contain...

dead or disabled pathogen

Once the aquired immune system has been exposed to the pathogen, it produces....

memory cells

What is active immunity?

Speeds up the bodies response to the pathogens preventing infection.