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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the difference between Kinetic and potential energy?
Kinetic energy is in motion, potential energy is stored.
What is the relationship between a solute, solvent, and a solution?
A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in a solvent.
What does osmosis do?
Passively moves water into cells
What are the 2 universal laws of energy?
1. Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
2. Energy may be converted from one form to another.
What is entropy?
What are the 3 components of ATP?
Adenine, Phosphate, and Ribose
What is a form of energy being lost?
What is the equation for Cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ---> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O [+ ATP]
What is consumed by Cellular respiration?
Carbohydrates and Oxygen
What is produced by Cellular respiration?
Carbon dioxide and water
What is the equation for Photosynthesis?
6 CO2 + 12 H20 --(light)--> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O
What is consumed by photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide and water
What is produced by photosynthesis?
Carbohydrates and oxygen
What do enzymes do?
Speed up Reactions
What are the molecules used with enzymes called?
What is simple diffusion?
The movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration. Tries to find equilibrium.
What is facilitated diffusion?
Uses channel proteins to move bigger molecules through a membrane.
What is osmosis?
The movement of water molecules across a membrane
What are two things that active transport needs?
1. Energy
2. A protein pump
What do cells involved in active transport have a large number of near their plasma membrane?
What is osmosis facilitated by?
Channel proteins called aquaporins
What is the amount of energy needed to get a reaction started called?
Energy of activation
What is the active site in an enzyme?
The part of an enzyme where its substrates fit in
What are the 4 steps of Cellular Respiration?
1. Glycolysis,
2. Preparatory step,
3. Krebs Cycle,
4. Electron Transport chain
Which of the 4 steps of Cellular Respiration happen outside of the Mitochondria?
Which of the 4 steps of Cellular Respiration happen inside the mitochondria?
Preparatory step, Krebs Cycle, and Electron transport chain
What is the net ATP gain of Cellular Respiration?
What is the net ATP gain of Fermentation?
Why is breathing important to Cellular Respiration?
Breathing takes in oxygen, which is needed for cellular respiration, and releases carbon dioxide, which is a product of cellular respiration
Which phases in Cellular respiration form CO2?
It is released during the preparatory stage and krebs cycle.
Which phase in Cellular Respiration is H2O formed?
It is the end product of the electron transport chain
What is the net gain of ATP in glycolysis per glucose molecule?
How many NADH are produced from each glucose molecule as a result of the preparatory reaction?
2, one per pyruvate
What are the products of fermentation by humans and yeast
Humans produce lactate, yeast produce ethyl alcohol and CO2
Which Enzyme is more productive in Cellular Respiration? NADH or FADH2?
NADH. NADH leads to 3 ATP, FADH2 leads to 2 ATP.
Which cycle of cellular respiration happens in the christae?
Electron transport chain
True or False, Glycolysis occurs in the mitochondria?
False, occurs in the cytoplasm
Is fermentation a good source of energy (ATP) for a life sustaining system?
No, fermentation only nets 2 ATP (from the Glycolysis step, which proceeds fermentation) and it is under anerobic conditions
What is the starting and ending products of Glycolysis?
Start with: Glucose, and 2 ATP
End with: 2 Pyruvate molecules, 4 ATP, and 2 NADH
What is the starting and ending products of the Preparatory reaction?
Start with: 2 Pyruvate molecules
End with: 2 Acetyl CoA and 2 CO2
What is the starting and ending products of the Krebs cycle?
Start with: 2 Acetyl CoA
End with: 4 CO2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
What is the starting and ending products of the Electron Transport chain?
Start with: 10 NADH, 2 FADH2
End with: About 34 ATP
Among the 38 possible ATP, which are made in which Cellular respiration cycle?
30 = Electron Transport chain from NADH
4 = Electron Transport chain from FADH2
2 = Krebs Cycle
2 = Glycolysis
Where does the energy come from in Cellular Respiration? (Where is the energy from in our diets?)
The organic Bonds that have electrons
What is the principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms?
What is the sac-like body in chloroplasts that are made of photosynthetic membranes that contain photosystems called?
The thylakoid
What are the large proteins that use energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and phosphate groups together to produce ATP called?
ATP Synthase
What is the region outside the thylkaloid membranes in chloroplasts called?
What is a process that does not require oxygen called?
What is a process that requires oxygen called?
What is a stoma?
Small opening on the underside of the leaf in which gases pass
What is a Mesophyll cell?
Thickest area of the leaf, the site of the most photosynthesis occurrence.
What is a Thylakoid?
flattened sac in chloroplast which contain chlorophyll. The site of photosynthesis light reactions
What are the two reactions in photosynthesis?
1. Light reaction
2. Calvin cycle reaction (Light independent)
Where does the Light reaction occur?
In the thylakoid membrane
What happens in the light reaction?
Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy and energizes electrons.
What is the product of the light cycle?
ATP and (NADP+ -->) NADPH
What is the product of the CAlvin Cycle?
Glucose and other organic molecules.
What are chlorophyll classified as?
What do pigments do?
Absorb solar energy
What color light do chlorophyll reflect?
Carotenoid is classified as what?
Accessory pigments
What color light do carotenoid reflect?
Orange and Red
What is used to produce ATP in the light reaction?
The sun's energy, which is stored in the form of H+ gradient
Name the two photosystems in order of when they happen
Photosystem II and then PHotosystem I
What happens in Photosystem II?
The absorption of solar energy. Electrons are then sent to the Electron Transport chain
What happens in the Electron Transport chain in Photosynthesis?
The electron carriers deliver the electrons, releasing energy. Energy is stored as H+ gradient.
What happens in Photosystem I?
Absorption of solar energy. Used with hydrogen to change NAPD+ to become NADPH
Where are the Photosystems II, Photosystems I and the electron transport chain located at?
The thylakoid membrane
What is photolysis?
The splitting of water molecules, which results in the release of oxygen
Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
In the Stroma
What are the 3 steps of the Calvin Cycle?
1. Carbon dioxide Fixation
2. Carbon dioxide Reduction
3. Regeneration of the first substrate (RuBP)
What is the end product of the Calvin Cycle?
C6H12O6 (glucose)
What happens in the Carbon dioxide fixation step of the Calvin Cycle?
CO2 from the atmosphere attaches to RuBP by the enzyme RuBP carboxylase. The 6 Carbon molecule gets split into two 3 carbon molecules.
What happens in the Carbon dioxide reduction step of the Calvin cycle?
R-CO2 becomes R-CH2O. The G3P can become glucose or some other organic molecule. This step needs NADPH and some ATP