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129 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
*Natural Selection
The differential survival and reproduction of individuals in a population
What affect does natural selection have on the allele frequencies
It changes them in a non-random way
*Biological Evolution
A change in the frequency in an inherited character from one generation to the next or across many generations
5 microevolutionary forces that can cause allele frequencies in a population to change
2.non-random mating
4.genetic drift
5.Natural selection
A characteristic of an organism that is the result of natural selection
abilty to survive and reproduce
Relative fitness
fitness of genotype relative to the other genotypes
Directional selection
selection favoring one homozygous genotype caused the favored allele to increase in frequency, decreases genitic variation
Disruptive selection
Selection favoring both homozygous genotypes also maintains both alleles at high frequency
stabilizing selection
selection favoring the heterozygous genotype maintains both alleles at high frequency- increases genetic variation
Frequency-dependent selection
The fitness of a particular genotype depends on its frequency in population
Phyletic gradualism
species evolve slowly
punctuated equilibrium
species evolve rapidly
change in a lineage with out speciation
change in a lineage with speciation
* biological species concept
species are groups of interbreeding natural populatons that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
reproductive isolation
cant interbreed, rises as a by-product of genetic change
prezygotic isolation
-mating or zygote formation is prevented
1.Temporal-differnt matting seasons
3.ecological-differnt parts of a habitat
4.mechanical-parts dont fit
Postzygotic isolation
matting occurs, but offspring is not successful
cretaceous-tertiary extinction
about 65mya caused by asteroid impact in gulf of mexico. 52% of marine genera extinct 18% of vertebrate families including dinosaurs
hardy-weinberg theory
a null model for evolutionary change, used to predict genotype frequency given the allel frequency
Why are mutations important
all genetic variation starts with dna mutations
what is neutral genetic variation
one third of all mutations at 3rd codon postions and most do not change the amino acid or the protein
Non-random mating
individuals choose mates- beneficial mutations are extrmely rare.
positive assortative mating
individuals tend to choose mates like themselves
negative assortative mating
individuals tend to choose mates unlike themselves
Immigrations/emigration (Gene flow)
movement of genes into or out of a population requires movement of individuals and successful mating
Genetic drift
Changes in allele frequency due to random events that are most noticeable in small populations
What is a population bottleneck
crash in population size also causes crash in amoust of genetic diversity
founder effect
when a small # of people start a foundation
a tree depicting the evolutionary history of a species or group of species also called a cladogram
ingroup vs outgroup
ingroup-group your a studying
Outgroup-group closely related to species but not part of the ingroup
shared derived character
is a shared by two or more members of the ingroup but is not found in the outgroup
ancestral character
is found in the ingroup and in the outgroup
is a character found in only one species
principal of parsimony
pick the best tree with the less amounts of ticks
homology vs analogy
species are similar and related -same structure but differnt functions

Opposite of homology-species are similar but unrelated
3 main groups of fish
1.jawless-oldest group evolved 550mya
2.osteichthyes-bony fish, appear in fossil records 470mya
3.chondrichthyes-cartilaginous fish
three innovations that the osteichthyes possess
1.hinged jaws-catch bigger prey
2.vertebrae-protect spinal cord
3.paired fins-allow fishes to maneuver while swimming
characteristics of amphibians
strong legs that extend out sideways from body, three chambered heart need water or moisture for reproduction
3 main groups of amphibians
1. apoda (caecilians)- 150 species, legless, blind, tropical, burrow in soil eat anthropods
2. urodela (salamanders)- 500 species, trestrial and aquatic species can regenerate lost tail and limbs
3. anura(frogs and toads)- 3200 species, both terrestial and aquatic powerful hind legs sticky toung
reaching reproductive maturity while still immature body form
4 major evolutionary innovations found in reptiles
1.dry scaly skin prevents dehydration on land no more breathing through skin
2.expandable rib cage increases breathing efficiency
3. legs beneth the body for more efficient running and walking
4. amniotic eggs: eggs for land
egg white-water source
yolk sac
pink sack-waste
2 main groups of dinosaurs
1. ornithischian-bird hipped
2. saurischian-lizard hipped
6 characteristics of birds
2. warm blooded
3.air sac system
4. four chambered heart
5.no teeth in modern birds
6. no bony tail in modern birds
gizzard and why is it important
muscular stomach for grinding food
how is lift on a birds wing generated
differences in air pressure above and below the wing created by the air foil shape of the wing
adaptations for nocturnal hunting found in owls
a. quiet plumage (flight)
b. big eyes fixed in their sockets
c.neck grooves
d.asymmetric ears
mammals evolved from these primitive reptiles
important characteristics of mammals
a.warm blooded
b.mammary glands and milk nourish offspring
c.hair made keratin
d.4 chambered heart
e. well developed brain
only living mammals that lay eggs
young developed in a pouch
largest diversity found in australia
placental mammals
developing embryo nourished by a placenta inside mother's uterus
characteristics of a primate
a. all primates, except humans hae a big toe separate from other toes
b.thumb is separate from fingers
c.binocular vision
d. large brains and short jaws
e. flat nails on fingers and toes
two groups of primates
prosimians & anthropoids
three main groups of anthropoids
1. new world monkeys
2. old world monkeys
3. great apes
new world monkeys
prehensile tail, all species live in trees, nostrils open to the side
old world monkeys
no prehensile tail, arboreal and trestrial species, nostrils open downward.
great apes
no tail, aboreal and trestrial species, large body size, nostrils open downward.
prosimian that is most closely related to the anthropoid primates
which anthropoid primates are most closely related to humans
chimpanzee bonobos
which group of monkeys are most closely related to the great apes and humans
old world monkeys
entire hisotry of primates goes back how many years?
how long did humans and chimpanzees diverge on separate evolutionary branches
refers to those branches of the evoloutionary tree closely related to humans
what was the first hominid species to migrate out of africa and when did they leave
homo erectus 1.8 mya to 200,000 y.a.
a separate species that lived in europe and the middle east from 200,000ya to about 35,000ya
when did homo sapieans arise
what an animal does and how it does it
innate behaviors
instinctive, fixed and not modified by enviornmental factors.
fixed action patterns
a sequece of innate behaviors that is unchangeable and once initiated is carried to completion
super normal stimulus
when organisms prefer an excessive stimulus to the normal stimulus
the modification of behavior resulting from specific experiences
the recognition response and attachment of young to a particular adult or object
the loss of responsiveness to unimportant stimuli.
associative learning
the ability of many aminals to learn to associate one stimulis with another.
operant conditioning
Trial and Error learning. rewards and punishments
Insight learning
reasoning, formunalted a course of action by understanding the relationship between the parts of the problem. common only in primates and especially humans.
behavioral conflicts of intrests
confilicts between sexes, with sexes, parents and offspring, sibling rivalry
difference in gamete size in males and females
1 male and 1 female made for life
one male, multiple females
mate guarding
protecting your investment in reproduction by not allowing your partner to mate with other individuals.
one female and multiple males
minimal criteria
females accept the first mate that meets a minimum threshold. usually when males are scarse
best in show
females accept the best male among those available
an arena where males gather to display and females choose the best male among those present
Inclusive fitness
your fitness plus the fitness of your close relatives
individuals same species present together in the same area at the same time
population ecology
study of populations in relation to the environment
life table
age-specific summary of the survial and reproduction of the individuals in a population
portion of individuals alive during a given time interval
type 1-high survivalship throught early and middle age(humans)
type 2-relatively constant survivorship throughout life (birds)
type 3- low survivorship in early life (oak trees)
age-specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population
life history and its traits
the triats that affect an organism's schedule of survival and reproduction
How long to live? when to reproduce? how many eggs/seeds to make? how much parental care?
Semelparity vs Iteroparity
large # of offspring produced in a single reproductive bout vs. small number of offspring produced in each of several reproductive bouts.
exponential population growth vs. Logistive population growth
Maximum growth rate under ideal condtions vs population growth is limited by carrying capacity
Density-dependent factors
Population size controlled by disease, competition, parasites, territorial, accumulation of wastes. these factors become intense as pop. size increases.
allee effect
individuals in a pop. may have a hard time surviving or reproducing if pop. size is too small or too large
density-independent factors
population size affected by natural disaster, climate change, these factors affect large and small populations equally
how organisms interact with each other and the environment
comm-organisms of differnt species living in the same geografic area at the same time
hab-the place where an organism lives
an organism's fuctional role in a habitat or community
allen's rule
Bergmann's rule
mammals that live in the cold have shorter faces and libs than mammals living in warmer areas

warm blooded animals that live in the cold are bigger than those that live in the warm areas
intra-specific competition
& its effect
competition between individuals of the same species
Limits population size and growth
inter-specific competition
competition between differnt species
character displacement
species evolve non-overlapping traits so they dont have to compete with each other
resource partitioning
when species have divided the resources so they dont have to compete for the same food
competitive exclusion
one species excludes another though competition
herbivory, parasitism, predation
one species benefits, the other is harmed
eating plants, sometimes kills the plant and sometimes not
Graz-eating entire plant
Brow-eating only part of the plant

one organism feeds on the living tissue of another organism

usally consumes its host while alive
one organism benefits the other dies
an interation that benefits one species but has no affect of the other
example:birds nest
an interaction the benefits both species
example: humming bird pollinating
reciprocal adaptions of two differnt species
cryptic coloration
for hiding
aposematice coloration
warns of poison
deceptie patters or behavior
to distract or fool potential predators
batesian mimicry
when a harmless species mimics a harmful species
allopatric speciation
ranges do not touch or over lap no gene flow
*most common
Parapatric speciation
ranges touch but do not overlap significantly, gene flow is usually small
Sympatric speciation
ranges overlap significantly, gene flow is not prevented by geography
*least common
fluid filled sack shock absorbant
membrane around amnion sack-gas is diffused through sack
life history tradeoffs
a. survival and reproduction
b. offspring quality versus offspring number
what does the tick mark on the tree represent
evolutionary change