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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is glucose metabolism?
converting glucose and oxygen to ATP to power muscles, brainn action potentials, and transport proteins
what to transport proteins do?
pump nutrients into cell to keep ionic balance in blood
what is the unique thing about ATP?
each cell has to make its own ATP. ATP in the blood is useless because there are no ATP transporter proteins
what is cytoplasm made up of? why is that important?
90% water
8% enzymes
2% substrates
glucose metabolism occurs in the cytoplasm
where does cellular respiration occur?
in the mitochondria
what are some symptoms of low ATP?
brain is confused, cranky, dizzy, unconcious, dead
what is prostaglandin?
a hormone. is starts labor in birth, causes erections in males.
very expensive
what are optical isomers?
mirror image chemicals.
some chemicals have mirror image versions

examples include amino acids and sugars.
how does the body use optical isomers?
the body nevers uses both mirror images because the active site can't fit both.

example, asparagine:
l-asparagine is used by all life but d-asparagine is used by a few rare bacteria
why are chromosomes wound up?
because if not, they are vulnerable.

a break in a chromosome results in a mutation
what are intermidiate fibers?
they are made of protein fibers wound together to form the "skeleton" of cells.
what is one protein fiber not wound up?
a polypeptide (amino acid chain)
what are fat cells"?
they are under the skin and are permanent (you can only lose the fat within the cells).

there are fat droplets made of triglycerides inside the cells
what are the triglycerides composed of?
they are zig zags of carbon chains
hydrolysis reaction?
uses water to digest starch
dehydration reaction?
water is a product used when starch is made
what are carbohydrates?
sugars and polysaccharides
there are 80 types of sugars
l-types are rare
d-types are used by all life
emile fischer?
1905. discovered the straight chain model of glucose.
1535. it was discovered that 98% of glucose is a ring that the enzymes fit
2 sugars together.

ex. sucrose=glucose + fructose
maltose=beer sugar
lactose=milk sugar

(3 most common sugars)
what are polysaccharides?
chains of glucose w/ small chemical differences

ex. starch--how glucose is stored
cellulose--plant fibers
chiton--arthropod exoskeletons
why do the chemical differences of polysaccharides make such a big difference?
the link in glucose chains causes difference between starch and cellulose

starch is alpha 1,4 link
cellulose is beta 1,4 link
why are H-bonds so important in fresh bread
the heat has broken H-bonds of the coils so starch is soft.

after 2 days, starch coils up and bread gets hard
in ironing?
same deal with the bread.H bonds broken when ironing, they reform when cooling
how is chitin formed?
alpha 1,4 linked, but N-acetyl group on each glucose changes geometry so H-bonds form a sheet
what are nucleic acids?
they make up DNA and RNA

As with Ts
Cs with Gs

As with Us
Cs with Gs
DNA- deoxyribonucleic acid
RNA- ribonucleic acid
what are proteins?
proteins do all the work in cells. they are giant molecules (200 amino acids)

enzymes cause metabolic reactions (there are 15,000 in humans)
is a protein for fibers on skin cells.

if skin is irritated, skin cells make more keratin and a lot die (become cellulosed).

keratin is a family of proteins, evolved from pre-fish
how did keratin evolve?
sea squirts, no scales
fish, have scales which is modified keratin
--had no teeth, which evolved as modified scales, so teeth are keratin gene
amphibians-claws are modified scales
reptiles--claws, teeth, skin, scales, horn are keratin
mammals--hair is modified scales
birds--feathers are modified scales
how do muscle cells respond to stimuli?
fibers in muscles contract when ATP gives up a P and lengthens when a P is removed.

ADP is then recycled by the mitochondria where it gets another P to go back to ATP
what is insulin? and what happens if its too high or too low?
its a 60 amino acid protein. a hormone that regulates sugar levels.

too high--candies the tissue resulting in eye and kidney damage and blood vessel damage

too low--pass out due to lack of ATP for brain
when discovered? how?
1930s--get it from cow pancreas, but wasnt the same amino acid sequence so there was some allergy to it.

1985--first genetic engineering experiment put the human gene in a bacteria, which made human insulin
how are amino acids structured?
they are all the same, except for the R group which is different (20 types)
what are the 5 types of amino acids?
1. nonpolar R group--Rgroup avoids water, aa fold into center of protein

2. polar uncharged--Rgroup has --OH

3. charged Rgroup--ionized with a full charge

4. aromatic group--bonds to each other by stacking. results in benzene ring (smells like pine tar)

5. special function--have SH group--very reactive
what is the folding sequence of aa?
1. primary structure--straight line
2. secondary structure--alpha helix (curley cue) or beta plated sheet (straight, wavy, straight)
3. tertiary folding--more complex folding guided by R groups (some proteins are finished folding here)
4. quaternary folding--subunit proteins stick together (most enzymes are folded like this)
how many proteins with 100 amino acids could theoretically be made?
20 to the 100th power
what is sickle cell anemia caused by?
a mutation of the beta chain 5 amino acids from the end is changed
what are the types of R-group bonds?
1. H-bond
2. disulfide bridge (hair keratin has lots of sulfide bridges--that's why it smells funny)
3. ionic bond--
4. van der waals bond--done by nonpolar R-groups
5. hydrophobic bonding--60% of total bonding forces
what is a motif?
very common foldings made of alpha helix and beta sheet chains (in secondary folding)
what are the types of motifs?
1. beta alpha beta--seen in many proteins (located in the active site)--called rossman fold
2. beta barrel--rolled up into tube--transporter proteins have it
what is a domain?
very common tertiary shapes
chromosomes in eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
eukaryotes--straight chromosomes
prokaryotes--circular chromosomes
what do chaperone proteins do?
they help slightly denatured (unfolded) proteins refold. if the protein won't refold, enzymes will break it down into amino acids.
what are the causes of denaturation?
1. heat--breaks H-bonds
2. acidic conditions
3. high salt--breaks H-bonds and ionic bonds
can proteins fold up by themselves?
yes, in the 1950s it was discovered that once the gene makes the aa sequence the work is done

ribonuclease helps folding
what are lipids? the types of lipids?
lipids are any non-polar bio molecule, meaning it wont dissolve in water, blood, or cytoplasm

1. triglyceridges--fats and oils
2. phospholipids--make membranes
3. steroids--cholesterol (part of cell membranes)
4. waxes
what are the edible fats and oils?
1. triglycerides (energy supply storage)
2. mineral oil--is a nondigestible laxative
3. motor oil--nondigestible laxative
what is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
unsaturated have 2 double bonds. cannot interlock so are more healthy

saturated are easily turned into cholesterol by body. they are able to interlock and become solid, which clog the vessels
how many calories in fats? in carbs?
fats=9 kcal/gram
carbs=4 kcal/gram
where do plants and animals store food?
plants--store starch in the roots, which is converted to sucrose in the spring. its heavy, but plants don't move so that's okay

animals--store glycogen in liver, but most storage is fat under the skin. this is much lighter for movement
how do enzymes cause chemical reactions?
by changing activation energy
what does thermodynamics mean?
means heat + moving, changing
what are the laws of thermodynamics?
1. energy cannot be created or destroyed--ends up as heat dispersed in universe
2. entropy increases in any system
3. it's impossible to get anything to absolute zero because there will always be something that will radiate heat
exergonic? endergonic?
exergonic--real reactions--results in a drop of G
endergonic--do not occur, they are theoretical. to make them real they must be couple with exergonic reactions.
what happens to a reaction when an enzyme is present?
the reaction proceeds faster. water moves 700 mph on average and so its easier for water to break the bonds

without an enzyme, water doesn't move fast enough to break the bonds. only a few water molecules move fast enough
what are some factors that affect enzymes?
1. temperature
2. pH
3. chemicals
how do chemicals affect enzymes?
some activate enzymes, but most inhibit
what are the types of enzyme inhibitors?
1. non competitive inhibitors
2. competitive inhibitors
3. allosteric inhibitors
non competitive inhibitors?
chemicals that cause general damage to the enzyme, not just to the active site. example: antiseptics
jams the enzyme, causes a hole, and kills bacteria. only works on growing bacteria

penicillin works this way, and so does almost every other drug
controls rates by binding to a site other than the active site
why were antibiotics called the "magical bullet" in the 1930s?
because they shoot bacteria but not humans. humans don't have cell walls.
what are the membranes in the cell? what are the made up of?
1. nuclear membrane
2. cell membrane
3. endoplasmic reticulum
4. mitochondria

made up of phospholipid bilayer
how does sand occur in the eye?
lysozyme (in tears) kills bacteria on the surface of eye and keeps eyes from being destroyed by bacteria in the air.

lysozyme hydrolyzes the sugar chains in cell walls of bacteria, killing it and turning it to sand
what is the fluid mosaic model of membranes?
1970. made of phospholipids, but has proteins also.

can still a needle in and it wont pop. areas where it isnt fluid will tear.
what is the RNA world theory?
that there are ribozymes (enzymes made of RNA instead of aa chains).

the 1st living organisms were completely made of RNA. discovered ribozymes in 1990 so there could be enzyes made of RNA
what are the types of cell specificity?
1. developmental--cells can recognize what cells stick to (ex. tendon sticks to bone). sugar chains are different on different cells
2. self-recognition--all a person's cells have certain sugar chemicals that are unique to that person. their immune system will attack anything that doesnt have the sucgar chain.
how does a newborn's immune system work?
it wont attack anything for the first few weeks. it gets all its antibiotics from the mother's milk
what is a cell regonition screw up?
when the immune system attacks your own cells (ex. arthrities, MS, lupus)
history of DNA?
1. 1869 meischer discovered slimy chemical in all cells (DNA)
had no idea what it did
2. 1905--Feulgen--made a red dye that stained skin permanently (why?)
-looked at the stained cells under a microscope and found chromosomes stained red, and realized they had DNA
3. 1929 Griffith--in 1918 there was a flu epidemic, and griffith wanted to make a vaccine against pneumonia
4. avery--there's something genetic in that vaccine and he discovered it. took til 1943 to prove transforming factor is DNA
are genes DNA?
maybe, might be proteins because chromosomes also have proteins
can you die from the flu?
no, but it weakens the immune system making you vulnerable to pneumonia, which people die from.

10% of europe and us died from it after WWI due to people intermixing
how did griffith's vaccine work?
1. take bacteria and boil it, which kills the bacteria but keeps the proteins (DNA, etc)
2. inject heat killed bacteria into blood, so people develop antibodies in 3 days. they are made for life and protect against the disease
why didn't his original vaccine work?
because there are 2 strains of pneumonia. nonvirulent and virulent.
10% of people have nonvirulent and don't know it. doscovered (through mice tests) that the vaccine he created worked in 90% of the people, but activated the nonvirulent type in the other 10%, killing them

he then abandoned the vaccine after he realized so many would die.