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39 Cards in this Set

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genotype
genetic constitution of a cell, organism or individual; specific allele makeup of the individual; has reference to a single trait, set of traits or an entire complex of traits; inherited instructions for genetic code
phenotype
any observable characteristic or trait of an organism (biochemical or physiological properties, behavior) observable by technical procedures, behaviors (syndromes); GENOTYPE+ENVIRONMENT=PHENOTYPE
allele
one of 2 or more forms of DNA in sequence of a particular gene; synonymous with DNA sequence; results in different traits/expression of different genes
homozygous
having identical alleles for the same trait (e.g., BB, gg, XX)
heterozygous
having two different alleles for the same trait (e.g., Bb, Gg, Xx)
autosome
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; equal number of copies in males and females; in humans there are 22 pairs of autosomes and then the X and Y chromosomes
sex-linkage
phenotypic expression of an allele related to chromosomal sex; more geneson X than Y chromosome therefore more X-linked traits; X-linked traits maternally inherited, Y-linked traits paternally inherited
nondisjunction
failure of chromosome pairs to separate properly during cell division; result is imbalance of chromosomes; losing chromosome-monosomy, gaining chromosome-trisomy
autotroph
producer of organic compounds (fats, carbs, proteins) from simple inorganic chemical reactions (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis); producers in the food chain
chloroplast
organelles found in the plant cells and conducts photosynthesis; captures light energy to conserve free energy in the form of ATP and reduce NADPto NADPH through photosynthesis; plastids
photosynthesis
process that converts CO2 into organic compounds; especially sugars arising from energy from sunlight; occurs in plants, algae, bacteria; 6CO2 (carbon dioxide)+6H20 (water)-->C6H1206 (sugar)+6O2 (water)
the Calvin Cycle
series of biochemical reactions that take place in the stroma of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms; it's a dark reaction used for carbon fixations
light reactions (of photosynthesis)
photosynthesis (light to energy) first stages; take place on the thykaloid membrane (stroma or outside); contains proteins that catalyze reactions
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate; multi-functional nucleotide; used in intracellular energy transport; serves as chemical energy within cells for metabolism
NADPH
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate;in the last step of light reactions in photosynthesis, it is reduced to ferredoxin -NADP+ and is then used as reducing power in Calvin Cycle
mitochondria
energy factories of eukaryotic cells; ATP produced here using energy from food; done through respiration
aerobic cellular respiration
process in which cells convert biochemical energy into ATP and produce waste; key way cells gain useful energy; requires oxygen; carbs, fat and proteins can all be consumed as reactants but it is preferred method of pyruvate breakdown; requires pyruvate to enter mitochondrion and be fully oxidized by the Krebs cycle
glycolysis
metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate; free energy released is used to form ATP and NADH; sequence of 10 reactions
Kreb's Cycle
process in which energy is extracted from pyruvate bonds; pyruvate converted into acetyl CoA; each glucose goes through the Kreb's cycle twice
electron transport chain
couples reaction between electron donor and acceptor through a series of biochemical reactions; used for extracting energy from sunlight and respiration
food web
representations of predator-prey relationships between species within an ecosystem or habitat
ecosystem
biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as non-living physical components (air, soil, water); as how organisms interact; biological community and its physical environment
10% rule
only ten percent or less of energy available to next highest trophic level; other 90+% is lost has heat
natural capital
stock of natural ecosystems yielding a flow of valuable goods or services into the future; structure and diversity of system important to flow and natural capital
trophic level
position an organism occupies on the food chain; succession of organisms that eat each other and are in turn eaten
keystone species
species that has a disproportionate effect on its environment based on its biomass; determine types and numbers of other various species in ecosystem
exponential growth
species population will grow exponentially until essential nutrient/factor is exhausted
logistic growth
rate of production is proportional to both the existing population and the amount of available resources, all else being equal
limiting factor
factor that controls a process, such as organism growth or species population size, or distribution
carrying capacity
population size of species that the environment can sustain indefinitely; maximal load
biodiversity
degree of variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or the planet
Carbon Cycle
the cycle by which carbon is exchanged among biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere of the earth
overexploitation
overharvesting; harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns
evolution
change in inherited traits of a population of organisms through successive generations
natural selection
process by which traits become more or less common in a population due to consistent effects upon the survival or reproduction of their bearers
antibiotic resistance
drug resistance where a microorganism is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic; results in a population of resilient bacteria
variation
biodiversity
selection pressure
inherited traits that lessen its effects can become widely spread through a population
adaptation
process by which a population becomes better suited to its habitat