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63 Cards in this Set

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Halobacterium
Pump lots of K+ into cell (compatible solutes)Live in high salt, 9%

Methanogenic

Produce CH4


Diverse habitats


Diverse morphologies


Cows>>global warming

Archaea

Thermoplasmatales

No cell wall


Chemoorganotrophs


Aerobes/anaerobes by sulfur respiration


Thermophilic


Acidophilic


Self-heating coal piles

Domain: Archaea, Phylum: Euryarchaeota

Methanopyrus

Hyperthermophilic


84-110C, up to 122C


Rod-shaped


Methanogen

Domain: Arches, Phylum: Euryarchaeota

Crenarchaeota Sulfolobales

90C, pH = 1-5


genera:Sulfolobus,Acidianus

Sulfolobales Sulfolobus
habitat: sulfur-rich, acidic, hotspringsaerobic chemolithotrophsoxidize H2S or S0adhere to sulfur crystalsspherical or distinct lobes
Alveolates (general)
alveoli (sacs underneath cytoplasmic membrane, maintain osmotic balance)
Fungi (general)
closest LUCA for animalsdeveloped with animals 1.5 billion yrs agomulticellularmay be pathogenicSpecies: Ophiostoma ulmi (dutch elm tree devastation), Mycoses (athlete's foot, histoplasmosis)
human papillomavirus
icosahedral virus
Cruetzfeld-Jakob Disease
human prion disease
Kuru
human prion disease
spongiform encaphalopathies
prion diseases
prion
infectious proteins
viroid

RNA, no coat

Satellite viruses
rely on unrelated viruses as helpers

Nanoarchaeum equitans

one of smallest organisms -> tiny genome


obligate symbiont with Ignicoccus


dependent on host for most needs

Bdellovibrio
Prey on gram neg. bact.Obligate anaerobes
Rhizobium
N-fixingIn root nodules
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Crown gall disease
Rickettsia, Wolbachia
Often intracellular parasites
Rickettsia diseases
TyphusRocky mountain spotted fever
Wolbachia female production in hosts
FeminizationParthenogenesisMale killingCytoplasmic incompatibility
Neisseria
Gram-neg diplococci (touching spheres)gonorrhoeae = gonorrheameningitidis = meningitis
Gammaproteobact.
Most important class for human pathology
Escherichia
Mixed-acid fermenterInhabit intestinal tracts, synthesize vitaminsSome are pathogenic (if have pathogenicity islands)
Salmonella, Shigella
Mixed-acid fermentersFood-borne illness, food poisoning

Proteus

Mixed-acid fermenters


Rapidly motile, swarms = concentric rings


Causes UTIs

Klebsiella
Butanediol fermenterMany fix NMay cause pneumoniaIn ant fungal gardens
Helicobacter
Gram-negPathogenic: gastric ulcers, gastric cancer50% of population infected without symptomsBarry Marshall drank it, proved it

Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Streptococcus

Non-sporulating Firmicute key genera

Staphylococcus, Micrococcus

Aerobic


High salt tolerant

Staphylococcus aureus
Pathogenic Gram-positive
Staphylococcus epidermia
Gram positiveNormal flora of human skin
Lactic acid bact.
Gram posCocci, rodsProduce lactic acidZERO aerobic respiration, E from fermentationAnaerobic, aerotolerantHomofermentative (produce lactic acid only) or Heterofermentative (lactic acid, ethanol, CO2)
Streptococcus
Nonsporulating FirmicuteHomofermentative (just lactic acid produced)Live in chains
Listeria
gram positive coccobacilli3-5 - cell chainsL. monocytogens: foodborne illness from cheese, sausages-->mild - fatal meningitisActA protein converts actin polymerization into a motile force
Endospore-forming firmicutes
Key genera: bacillus, clostridiumdistinguishing features: morphology, shape, cellular position of endosporegenerally found in soils (because endospores are advantageous for soil which is highly variable in its conditions)
Tenericutes: Mollicutes
Mycoplasmic (no cell wall at all!!)Key genera: Mycoplasma, Spiroplasmaverrrrrrry smalloften intracellular parasitic
Mycoplasma
bacteria without cell wallsMollicutepleomorphic growth = many require cholesterol, look like fried eggsTINY (0.1 micrometer)one of smallest genoes for free-living bact., but not simple2nd bacterial genome ever sequenced: M. genitalium; M. pneumoniae
Spiroplasma
mycoplasmaHelical or spiralisolated from ticks, hemolymph and gut of insects, vascular plant fluids, insects that feed on those plants' fluidsplant pathogens: citrus stubborn disease, corn stunt diseaseInsect pathogens for: honeybees, beetles
Actinobacteria: Coryneform & Proprionic Acid Bacteria
Key genera: Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Propionibacterium30 taxonomic familiesRod-shaped to filamentoususually aerobicmostly harmless commensals (except for mycobacterium)antibioticsdairy products
Corynebacterium
gram-posaerobicnonmotilerod-shapedclubshaped, irregular shaped, V-shaped cell arrangementsC. diphtheriae: diphtheria
diphtheriae
diphtheria
Arthrobacter
mostly soilvegetative cellresistant to dessication, starvationcycle includes cocci and bacilli
Propionic acid bacteria
first discovered in swiss cheesegram-posanaerobicsecondary fermentation (energy from fermentation products of OTHER bact.)Swiss cheese: Emmentaler - homofermentative streptococci (a lactobacilli) hands off lactic acid to these guys,these guys turn lactic acid into proprionic acid and CO2
Mycobacterium
First discovered by Robert KochGram stain = no good, because surface lipids = mycolic acidacid-fast staining: "Ziehl-Neelsen staining" = red dye + heat + phenol, decolorized in acid-alcohol, counterstained with methylene bluerod-shapedsomewhat pleomorphic2 groups: slow-growing, fast-growingform tight, wrinkled coloniesIncludes TB (tuberculosis)
Filamentous Actinobacteria: Streptomyces & relatives
Key genera: Streptomyces, Actinomycesfilamentousgram-posproduce mycelium = analogous to mycelium of fungiover 500 speciesprimarily soilgive earthy odor to soil (geosmins)strict aerobesproduce extracellular enzymesStreptomyces
Streptomyces
vegetative phase: complex interwoven filamentssporophores = aerial filamentsconidia = sporesclassification = shape/arrangement8 Mbp genome = BIGPRODUCES OVER 500 ANTIBIOTICSresistant to own antibiotic but sensitive to others
Bacteroides
normal commensal in human large intestinedominates our feceslots of enzymes for degradation of polysaccharidesallows humans to digest a lot of plantsgive rise to "enterotypes" = typology of gut microbiomes
Cyanobacteria
key genera: synechoccocusoxygenic PHOTOTROPHSfirst oxygen-evolving phototrophs, gave rise to oxygen in atmospherelarge morphological diversity: unicellular with binary fission, unicellular with multiple fission, filamentous with heterocysts, filamentous without heterocysts, branching filamentoussome live in human gut or groundwater...how? = nonphotosynthetic
Prochlorophytes
key genus: Prochlrococcusfound in photic zone of open oceansMOST ABUNDANT PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROORG ON EARTH
Chlamydia
Obligate intracellular parasiteVERY SIMPLE metabolisma leading STD
Thermus
Thermus Aquaticus = thermophilic, aerobicsource of Taq DNA pol. = heat-stable enzyme for PCR
Deinococcus radiodurans
aerobicorganotrophicpeptidoglycan has ornithineouter membrane missing lipid Amost are red or pink (carotenoids)resist UV and gamma radiationvery good at repairing DNA damagemany DNA-repair enzymescan reassemble frangmented DNADNA arrangement = "toroidal"= stack of rings
Morphological diversity of Bacteria
SpirochetesProsthecateStalked bacteriaMyxobacteria
Spirochetes
have ENDOFLAGELLA located in PERIPLASM key genera: Treponema, Leptospira, Borreliagram-negmotilecoiledaquatic and in animalssome pathogenic
Treponema
Anaerobichost-associatedT. pallidum: syphilis in humanscells flat/wavy, NOT helical
Borrelia
Spirochetemostly pathogenic - humans and animalsB. burgdorferi = Lyme disease, has linear chromosome
Borrelia burgdorferi
causes Lyme diseaselinear chromosomeLeptospira
Leptospira
Spirochetenatural host = rodentscauses leptospirosis in humans, get it from rodent urine
Caulobacter
Prosthecate/stalked bact. = has HOLDFASTChemoorganotrophfound on surfaces of aquaticforms rosettes = stalks of attached cellsonly replicates DNA and divides while in stalked stage
Myxobacteria
complex life cycle =aggregation through chemotaxis and quorum sensingform fruiting bodies = stalk + headhead = myxospores (like endospore, but less heat resistant)
myxospore
endospore-ish with less heat resistance