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19 Cards in this Set
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What are the 4 levels of measurement?

Nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio.


The higher the level of measurement . . . .

. . . the more mathematical calculations can be performed on that data


Nominal Level of measurement

Qualitative, consisting of labels or names; no calculations can be preformed at this level.


Quantitative data is futher classified as . . . .

. . . continous or discrete.


Continuous data

???


Data

information, in particular, information prepared for a study.


Population

the particular group of interest.


Parameter

a numerical description of a particular population characteristic.


Sample

subset of the population from which data are collected.


Sample statistics

the actual numerical descriptions of a particular sample characteristic


census

data which are obtained from every member of the population.


population values are called . . . .

. . . parameters


sample values are called . . . .

. . . statistics


2 branches of statistics

descriptive statistics gather, sorts, summarizes and displays the data inferential statistics uses descriptive statistics to estimate population parameters


Two other factors apply to continuous variables:

1. It should be very rare to obtain identical measurements for two different individuals, because a continuous variable has an infinite number of possible values, If the data show a substantial number of tied scores, then you should suspect that the measurement procedure is very crude or that the variable is not really continuous.
2. When measuring a continuous variable, each measurement category is actually an interval that must be defined by boundaries. 

real limits

applies to any measurement of a continuous variable, even
when the score categories are not whole numbers; positioned exactly halfway between adjacent scores 

nominal scale,The word nominal means “having to do with names.”

involves classifying individuals into categories that have different names but that are not related to each other in any systematic way. label and categorize observations, but do not make any quantitative distinctions between observations.


ordinal scale

consists of a set of categories that are organized in an ordered sequence; rank observations in terms of size or magnitude; (first, second, third, and so on) also labels like small, medium, and large


factor that differentiates an interval scale from a ratio scale

nature of the zero point
