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341 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the commuter sprawl
the large and growing suburbs of a city from which people travel to work
wrapped up
folded and arranged neatly
bundles of notes
an amount of paper money tied up together in blocks
the anonymous donor
the unidentified person who left the gift
slipped in
entered a room quietly
reclaimed
asked to be returned to the person to whom it belongs
striking
noticeable, impressive
قابل توجه
turned in
has been taken to the police to be looked after
recovered
found and collected
safes
box made of reinforced metal to store valuables
pastries
baked foods
a levy
a tax
saturated fat
substance found in certain foods that is thought to contribute to heart disease
reduce consumption
lower the use of something
hoarding
buying a large amount more than they need to keep for future use
احتکار
to beat the price rise
to avoid paying a higher price later
scepticism
doubt about the effectiveness of the decision
تردید
claims
states as truth without necessarily proving it
premature deaths
deaths that happen earlier than expected
waistband
the top of a pair of trousers or skirt that attaches around the waist
campaign
a set of activities planned to achieve something
criticism
the expression of disapproval of someone or something
انتقاد
biodegradable
something that decomposes or breaks down naturally without any special treatment
زیست تخریب پذیر
compulsory
something that must be done
اجباری
financial levy
a sum of money that you pay in tax
landfill sites
a place where a large amounts of waste materials are disposed of
سایت های دفن زباله
to wean
to gradually make people stop doing something or using something
از شیر مادر گرفتن
behaviour
the way people or things act
environmentally friendly
a caring effect on the natural world
ethos
set of ideas and attitudes
صفات و شخصیت انسان
a facility
a group of buildings and structures that are used for a particular purpose
امکانات
quest
a long and hard search for something that is difficult or maybe even impossible to find
an array of
a group of similar items
plateaus
a plateau is an area of flat land that is higher than the land around it. The plural can also be spelt 'plateaux'.
emanated from
came from
flagship
most important
a tribute
something that is done to show respect and admiration for someone
visionary
an original thinker with intelligence and imagination
رویایی
to pay tribute to
to do something as a mark of respect for someone
passed away
died
a diehard fan of
a dedicated follower of
a household name
a product that is very widely known across all levels of society
snapped up
bought in large numbers very quickly
tweeted
wrote messages on the social media platform Twitter
idolised
admired greatly
murky haze
air difficult to see through due to smoke
pollution hotspots
areas where the air has its highest concentration of harmful substances
acute
severe; serious
حاد, بحرانی
seasonal average
usual temperatures for that time of the year
exacerbated
worsened
بدتر
perennial
continuous
همیشگی
smog
heavily polluted air that contains a mixture of smoke
a trick of nature
an event that has not being prompted by man
a shallow bowl
a depressed landscape with surroundings slightly higher than the centre
triggered
brought about
باعث
iconic
famous or well known. Also something that represents a place
یاد
landmark
place which is easily identifiable
perched
sitting in a position that is close to the edge
inaugurated
opened officially
flock to
gather together in large numbers and go somewhere
stress
a feeling of tension and worry
absence
being unavailable
tough
difficult, hard
سخت ,زمخت
employees
people who are paid to work for somebody
taking its toll
causing suffering, harm or damage
خسارت گرفتن
public sector
part of the economy that is controlled or supported financially by the government
بخش دولتی
organisational change
replacing the structure of a workplace with a different one
job security
the probability of someone keeping their job for a long time
redundancies
jobs which will stop existing
a strategy
a plan to achieve something
counselling
professional advice about a problem
مشاوره
she'd rather
she would prefer
dubbed
given a name, usually by the media
لقب
day release
scheme that allows her to leave prison during daytime
having none of it
not accepting any of the terms offered
intend
plan
قصد داشتن ,خیال داشتن
betrayed by
deceived by
خیانت
low-life
not high-class
complained
expressed unhappiness about
allowance
amount of money received regularly from the person who financially supported her
مستمری
ferret
long-bodied furry mammal
موش خرما
fonts
different styles and sizes of letters that are used in printing or typing
an array
a group or collection of things or people, often large or impressive
typography
the way of preparing and arranging printed material, especially designing how text will appear when it's printed
فن چاپ
calligraphy
the art of producing beautiful handwriting often using a brush or a special pen
خطاطی ,خوش نویسی
unsophisticated
simple and basic
characteristics
qualities or features that are typical of someone or something
humanitarian
concerned with reducing suffering and improving the conditions that people live in
بشر دوست
competent
efficient and effective
شایسته
loathed
disliked very much
منفور
jaunty
light-hearted, full of confidence and energetic
خود نما ,جلف
modest
not talking a lot about himself and his achievements
متواضع ,فروتن
to draw
draw
to receive
قرعه کشیدن
well-informed
having a good general knowledge and understanding of current affairs
windfall
a large amount of money which is received unexpectedly
ثروت باد اورده
in my wildest dreams
when I imagined what the best result for me could be
to pay off his debts
to pay all the money that he owes to companies and other people
aired
broadcast
hosted by
presented by
noted
famous and respected
espionage
spying; the work of trying to learn the secrets of one country to pass on to another
brush past
walk in opposite directions towards each other and just touch as they pass
undergrowth
bushes, plants and weeds growing under the trees of a wooded area
handler
someone who acts as a contact for a spy
infiltrator
a person who secretly becomes part of a group in order to get information about that group
cover
everyday job used to hide the work of a spy
blown
discovered and revealed
broke up
arrested the members of
assuming the identities of
using the names and documents of other people
an intriguing glimpse of
a fascinating view of
freak
unusual, irregular
دم دمی مزاج
Mother Nature
an expression used to refer to the power of nature, the weather and so on
blizzards
heavy snowstorms with strong winds
treacherous
extremely dangerous
grounded
not permitted to fly
death toll
number of people who died
تلفات
condemned
criticised very strongly
desecrating
damaging and showing no respect for
بی حرمت کردن
scrap metal
metal from old items which can be sold and then reused
adopted
accepted
legitimate
reasonable and acceptable
مشروع
vexed
complicated and controversial, causing a lot of disagreement
بحث بر انگیز
meticulous
careful and extremely detailed
خیلی دقیق
to cover their costs
to make enough money to pay for their expenses
laden with
with a big cargo of
بارگیری شده ,مملو
bank transfers
a method of moving money from one bank account to another
postal orders
official documents with an amount of money printed on them which can be exchanged at a post office for real money
paper planes
toy aeroplanes made from folded paper
compound
a property or group of buildings protected by fences and security
محوطه
tax evasion
the crime of not paying money owed to a tax-raising authority
a cover
an official excuse which disguises the true reason
a fierce government critic
a person with strong public opinions against the government
dogged pursuit
very determined following of
illegal fundraising
collecting money in a way which is against the law
to get at
to criticise
segregation
تفکیک ,جدایی
unchartered territory
an unfamiliar situation
in control
has power to give orders and make decisions
stuttered
gone through in an unsure way, with stop and start
widespread allegations
a great number of statements not yet proven saying that illegal or improper things were done
vote rigging
dishonest way of influencing the result of an election through tampering with the vote
an embarrassment
bound to cause shame
reflects
shows
fatigue
tiredness
dominated
influenced decisively
تحت سلطه
political stage
arena of politics
sheer
completely vertical
hair-raising
something so scary your hair stands up!
volatile
something that can change suddenly and unexpectedly
ravaged
harmed or damaged, nearly destroyed
ویران
mineral resources
things that are found naturally in the earth, such as tin, salt, coal
erupting volcano
a type of mountain which has hot melted rock, steam and ash bursting out of the top
lava
the hot liquid rock which comes out of a volcano and becomes solid as it cools
spewing out
pouring out quickly and in large quantities
proximity
closeness
to flee
to run away
endangered
a person, animal or place that is in danger of being harmed or destroyed
no doubting
no questioning of the truthfulness (of something)
lava flows
continuous movement of lava in the form of a river
gentle
mild and soft
ملایم
outflows
outpour
بیرون ریختن
the charred remains
matter reduced to charcoal after being burnt
violent mode
behaviour marked by great force and intensity
lethal
deadly
مهلک ,مرگ اور
to predict
to say something will happen before it does
off-limits
area not to be entered, of limited access
warning
message indicating impending danger
trend
a general direction in which a situation is developing
گرایش ,تمایل
the high street
the main street of a town where most of the shops are located
discounts
amounts of money taken off the full price of things - sometimes used as an incentive to get people to buy them
in the black
to be in profit (opposite of in the red)
struggling
trying hard to do something in a difficult situation or when there are problems
estimated
not an exact calculation but an approximate idea of the number has been worked out
transactions
The selling of things from one person to another
معاملات
accustomed
to become familiar with doing something so that it becomes normal or usual
خو گرفته
retailers
people or businesses who sell goods to the public
خرده فروشان
convenient
useful, easy or quick to do
راحت ,مناسب
carnivorous plants
plants that feed on insects
گیاهان گوشتخوار
lizard
a small reptile with a long body, long tail and four legs
مارمولک
the wildlife pantheon
a selection of species considered more famous or important
aversion
strong dislike of
بیزاری ,نفرت
a treasure trove of biodiversity
a place where there are many fantastic animals and plants which haven't been seen by scientists before
pressure is mounting
gradually increasing the exploitation of something
resources
supplies of raw materials
natural habitats
areas that offer the right conditions for a species to develop
زیستگاه های طبیعی
conservation
the preservation of species
حفظ منابع طبیعی ,حفاظت
sustainability
keeping something going without outside help
پایداری
mimic
to copy someone's behaviour or speech
تقلید کردن ,دست انداختن تقلیدی
domestic chores
regular and usually boring tasks you have to do at home
کارهای روزمره خانگی
replica
a good copy of something
creepy
a strange or unpleasant feeling of fear
وحشت زده
sum up
to summarise
app
an informal abbreviation for an application on a computer or mobile device
carbon footprint
the amount of carbon dioxide that is produced by a person or company's activities
credit crunch
a reduction in the availability of loans or credit
hardship
a difficult situation, often caused by lack of money
hard pressed
under a lot of pressure and worry
prevailing
very common in a certain time or place
a contender
someone or something that has a chance of winning in a competition
مدعی
vague
unclear
مبهم
persist
continue to exist
the emblem
a picture of logo that represents a country
wild beasts
untamed animals, usually big and four-legged
spectators
people who watch an event
mighty monument
imposing building with a strong historical significance
بنای یادبود
crumbling
falling into pieces
فاسد شده ,در حال فروپاشی
environmentalists
people who are very interested in the environment and try to protect it from being damaged
محیط زیست شناسان
precarious state
not stable or secure
متزلزل
exhaust fumes
gases expelled by an active vehicle engine
دود اگزوز
vibrations
periodic motions or shakes
لرزش و ارتعاش
restoration project
building works to make a building resemble its original condition
overtook
surpassed
سبقت ,پیشی گرفتن
proven oil reserves
confirmed information of the existence of crude oil deposits
stretches over
spreads or covers a large area
sticky
substance that tends to fix to any surface it touches
چسبنده
refine
purify the raw material
پالایش
ecosystem
the animals and plants in a particular geographical area and how they interact with each other
investment costs
money spent in the process of bringing oil to the surface
unprecedented
that never happened before
بی سابقه
the consortia
several groups of companies joined together
to commit to
to do something that can't be changed
متعهد به
landlord
owner of a property
barking mad
completely insane
dog-friendly
describes somewhere dogs are welcome
beverages
drinks
a treat
very well
auction
public sale where the person who offers most money receives the goods; Opposite: Tender
حراج ,مزایده
closely watched
followed with particular attention
the bidding
the offering of money at an auction
smashed (a record)
easily broke (a record)
شکستن
a chain (of restaurants)
a group of restaurants with similar appearance, name and shared central management
to liven up
to bring happiness and cheer
recover
to go back to the way it was (before a disaster, illness etc)
battered by (something)
badly affected by (something)
mouthful
a piece of food small enough to be eaten in one bite; morsel
لقمه
works out at
is calculated to be
adrenaline junkie
someone addicted to dangerous activities
into the void
into an empty space with no immediate touchable ground
a nightmare
a bad dream
کابوس
in one piece
with no serious injury
cuts and bruises
minor injuries
بریدگی و کوفتگی
to ban
to stop or forbid something
internal emails
emails sent and received between employees in the workplace
spam
junk emails
definitive
something that's determined, fixed or conclusive
قطعی
embedding
implanting, to fix firmly
تعبیه
to get rid of
to stop or clear away
keeping records
keeping evidence of things that happen
gathering momentum
getting faster and more detailed
coming under suspicion
being questioned
vessel
boat or a ship
coastguard
organisation which ensures the safety of ships and boats near the coast
shoreline
coast
the wreck
the remains of a ship which has sunk
maze
confusing system of passages
cabins
rooms in a boat or ship where people sleep
corridor
passage between rooms
member of the crew
person who works on a ship or plane
sanctuary
safe place
پناه گاه
overwhelmed
received a number greater than it would normally cope with
بیش از اندازه
washed up
brought to the shore of a body of water
از پا افتادن
stuffed
totally filled with (something)
پر شده
overfishing
fishing too much to the point of threatening the local fish population
a film buff
a person who is very interested in films and knows a lot about them
art-house
films which are made by small companies and are not usually seen by a wide audience
blockbuster
a very successful film financially
aesthetic
concerned with beauty and art and the understanding of beautiful things
زیبایی شناسی
orphaned
made parentless through death
یتیم
grief
a feeling of great sadness, especially when somebody dies
اندوه ,غم
for posterity
for all the people who will live in the future
آیندگان
A-levels
exams taken by 18 year-olds in England and Wales
resembled
seemed like
شباهت
ridiculous
very silly
مضحک ,خنده دار
elitist
for the interest of a small group of people who want to exclude others
نخبه گرا, تافته جدا بافته
mocked
joked about
تمسخر
rejection letter
letter which tells someone they are not wanted
employ
use
استخدام کردن ,بکار گرفتن
let somebody down
disappoint someone
نا امید کردن ,محروم کردن
procedures
set of actions considered normal in a certain situation
روش ,روند
state schools
schools funded by government rather than paid for directly by parents
maize
a tall plant grown for its large yellow grains of corn
ذرت ,بلال
domesticated
changed into something suitable for human consumption
اهلی ,خانگی
assumed
believed to be true
مفروض
diet
the food and drink we eat regularly
رژیم غذایی
corn cobs
the long hard parts of the maize plant that the yellow grains grow on
چوب ذرت
archaeological sites
places where historical remains of buildings and objects have been found in the ground
مکانهای باستان شناسی
indicate
show it is likely
نشان دادن
pottery
pots and dishes made with clay that have been baked in the oven
سفالگری
lacked
had not enough of
فاقد
an age
a particular period of history
سده٬ دوران
stand-off
a dispute that has reached a situation where no agreement can be reached
eviction
forced removal of someone (from their land)
اخراج
lease
legal agreement (to pay to use a building or land)
livelihoods
work that earn people money to live on
معیشت ,امرار معاش
fertile environment
the necessary conditions for (corruption) to easily develop
corruption
dishonest or illegal behaviour
فساد ,انحراف
privatise
sell state property to private owners
constitution
the system of laws and basic principles that a state is governed by
قانون اساسی
reluctant
hesitating, not keen
بی میل ,مخالف
confrontations
face-to-face disagreements between two groups of people
برخورد ,رویارویی
landmark
well-known building or structure
cracks
partial breaks
subsidence
movement of earth
نشست ,فروکش
time is on (its) side
it won't happen quickly
tilt
lean to one side
کج شدن
autism
the mental condition in which a person is unable to communicate or form relationships with others
behavioural problems
issues relating to how someone functions in certain situations
to spot
to identify
در نظر گرفتن
disorder
illness or condition
اختلال ,نابهنجاری
eye contact
looking directly into another's eyes
brainwaves
electrical signals in the brain
diagnose
work out
تشخیص دادن
conditions
illness or medical problem
alleviate
make less severe
کم کردن ,ارام کردن
symptoms
signs that show you are not healthy
reputations
someone's image, the opinions people have about them
سابقه ,شهرت
unflattering
less attractive than they really are; candid
بی پرده ,بی ریا ,صاف و ساده
investigated
examined
بررسی
privacy
a person's ability to keep some personal information secret
خلوت ,تنهایی
mysterious
strange
مرموز
blogs
online diaries
capsized
turned over in water
واژگون
speculating
formulating opinions about something without knowing all the facts
حدس و گمان
etiquette
the formal rules of correct behaviour
اداب معاشرت
abandoned
left behind forever
متروک
heroic
showing extreme courage and admired by many people
قهرمانانه
custom
an accepted way of doing things
رسم ,سنت ,عرف
compels
forces someone to do something
genes
the units in the cells of a living thing that determine its physical characteristics
contradicts
says or does the opposite of something
تناقض داشتن با ,مخالف بودن با
mistress
a woman who a married man is having a regular sexual relationship with and who is not his wife
معشوقه
draughty
room prone to have unpleasant cold wind flowing through
expand
increase
reality TV
show made for television starring ordinary people being observed in their ordinary roles
low-rate loan
money borrowed cheaply
successor
a person who follows another in a particular post
جانشین ,قائم مقام
entrepreneur
a person who starts a business
کارآفرین ,موسس شرکت
propaganda
dissemination of biased information
تبلیغات
masquerading
pretending to be something else
تغییر ظاهر
denies
says that something is not true
انکار کردن ,تکذیب کردن
electioneering
statement or act performed solely with the objective of attracting votes
انتخاباتی