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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Basic life process
the sum of all the chemical reaction occuring in the body.
Two types: Catabolism and Anabolism
breaking down (digestive)
building up of a complex compound from a simpler one
body's ability to detect and respond to changes in either the internal or external environment
the motion of the whole body, organs, single cells, and structures inside a cell
an increase in body size, because of increasing in size of the existing cells, the number of them, or both
the development of a cell from an immature state to a mature state: ex. single cell--cell division---neuron
the production of new cells or a new individual
Cranial Cavity
Formed by cranial bones-contains brain
Vertebral Canal
Formed by vertebral column-contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves
Thoracic Cavity
Chest Cavity-Contains Pleural, Pericardial and Mediastinum Cavity
Pleural Cavity
each surrounds a lung-the serous membrane of each pleural cavity is the pleura
Pericardial Cavity
Surrounds the heart-The serous membrane of the pericardial cavity is the pericardium
Anatomic region in the central portion of the thoracic cavity between the medial walls of the pleural cavities...Extends from the sternum to vertebral column and from first rib to diaphragm-contains all the structures of the thoracic cavity other than the lungs including for example the heart, thymus, esophagus, traches, and several large blood vessels.
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Subdivided into Abdominal and Pelvic Cavity
Abdominal Cavity
Contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestines, and most of large intestines-the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity is peritoneum
Pelvic Cavity
Contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestines and internal organs of reproduction
is the balance in the body's internal body environment.
A dynamic Condition
Due to constant interaction of the body's many regulatory processes.
Body Fluids
watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals that are found inside cells as well as surrounding them
Feedback System
cycle of events that constantly monitor, evaluate, and change the body condition
Three components: receptor, control center, and effector
monitors changes...send input to a control center
Control Center
Evaluates input...produces output order then sends output to effector
Receives output...produces response
Types of Feedback Systems
Negative and Positive
Negative Feedback System
Reverses the change is a controlled condition...does something to make the change disappear
ex: blood pressure regulation
Positive Feedback System
Reinforces the change in a controlled condition...keeps it going until the end result
ex: child birth
a homeostatic imbalance with recognizable signs and symptoms
subjective change in body function, not apparent to an observer...cannot measure or test
objective change, apparent to clinician...see it, test it, or measure it
hormone release by the brain into the blood causing the muscles in the wall of the uterus (effector) to contract...in child birth
Atom Level
first level-smallest unit of matter that participates in chemical reaction. Proton-positive charge. Neutron- negative charge
Molecule Level
Second level-Two or more atoms join together. Body mass is 55-60% water
Cell Level
Third level-formed by combining molecules. The basic structural and functional unit of an organism
Tissue Level
Fourth level-group of cells and their surrounding material that work together to do a particular function..four types..fat tissue acts as a cushin under the skin.
Epithelial Tissue
covering surfaces...lining cavities
Connective Tissue
Muscular Tissue
for movement
Nervous Tissue
Detecting changes
Organ Level
Fifth level-formed by joining 2 or more types of tissue together. they have a specific function and a recognizable shape
System level
Consists of related organs that work together. Usually has a recognizable shape.
Organism level
a living individual
Systems of Human body
Integumemtary System organ
-Consists of hair, nails, glands (sweat and oil)
The Integumentary System functions
Functions: Protects body...regulate body...temperature...eliminates wastes...helps make vitamin D...Detects sensation
The Skeletal System organ
-Consists of bones and their cartilages.
The Skeletal System functions
Functions: Supports and protects body...participates in body movement...produces blood cells...stores mineral (calcium), energy and lipids (fats)
The Muscular System organ
-Consists of Muscles (more than 600)
The Muscular System functions
Functions: body movement...stabilizes body position...generates heat
The Nervous System organs
-Consists of brain, spinal cord, nerves
The Nervous System functions
Functions: Detects, interprets, and respondes to internal and external changes...communicats through different body parts
The Endocrine System organ
-Consists of Hormone-producing glands (pineal, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, testes.
The Endocrine System functions
Function: regulates body activites by releasing hormones
The Cardiovascular System organ
-Consists of heart, blood, and blood vessels
The Cardiovascular System functions
Functions: transport substance...regulate temperature...regulates compositions of body fluid...defends against disease.
The Digestive System organ
-Contains organs of gastrointestinal tract, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, anus, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder and pancreas.
The Digestive System functions
Functions: processe of food...absorbs nutrients...eliminates solid wastes.
The Urinary System functions
Function: produces stores and eliminates urine...eliminates wastes...regulates the chemical composition of blood...maintains the acid-base balance...regulates production of red blood cells (RBC)
The Urinary System organs
-Contains kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
The Lymphatic System functions
Functions: circulates lymph...defends the body against te foreign invaders
The Lymphatic Sysytem organ
-Contains lymphatic fluid, lymph nodes (contain white blood cells), spleen, thymus, tonsils
The Respiratory System organs
-Consists of lungs and air passageways (nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchial tubes.
The Respiratory System functions
Functions: exchange gasses between air and blood...regulates acid-base balance...produces sound
The Reproductive System in Male organs
Consists of testes, penis, prostate, various duct
The Reproductive System in Male functions
Functions: Produces, stores, and eliminates sperm...testes secrets male sex hormone (testosterone)
The Reproductive System in Female organs
consists of ovaries, uterus, vagina, fallopian tubes, brests (mammary glands)
The Reproductive System in Female functions
Function: produces and releases egg cells
Ovaries secrets female sex hormones
Uterus house fetus
Breasts secret milk