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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Essentialism

fixed and constant and unchanging essence





Orientalism

Style of thought based on an ontological and epistemological

Xenophobia

hatred of the other (foreigner)



Xenophobia

love/ affection to stranger



Occidentalism

Reverse orientalism, orientalsim applied to western culture



Byzantine

Constantinople was capital affiliated w/ Christianity



Empire of the Sasanians

Iranian dynasty affiliated with zoroastarianism



Influenced Islam

Judiasm


Christianity


Zoroastrianism


Menichaesim


Paganism


Arabia before Islam


Jahiliyya "Tribe of Ignorance"


Sectarianism

different sects started appearing with the death of muhammed




Issue of leadership emerged with the beginning of sectarianism

hijra

Beginning of Muslim calendar Muhammad fled to Medina (first place a umma was established) because they didn't like his monotheism doctrine





Ansar Muhajirun

Medina converts

Koran

Emphasized judgment and mercy



Battle of Bader

Small numbers fought against bigger/better army. Victorious because of divine intervention. Mentioned in the Koran

Battle Uhud

Lost but began with great success. They didn't follow Muhammad instruction because they thought they were doing so well.



Battle of the Trench

Fought in a trench. fortnight long siege, while being attacked by Arabs and Jews. Failure of siege and increased influence of Islam.

Koran Favors

Clearly favors personal commitment to the faith over blood or tribal ties



Quraysh

Main tribe of Arabia



Abu Baker

Muhammad Father-in-law, became caliph after muhammad died



Shi'is

Claim Muhammed identified his cousin Ali as his successor



Golden Age

the rightly guided caliphs ruled



Rightly Guided Caliphs

Abu Baker


Umar


Uthman


Ali



First Fitna

First Muslim Civil War





Battle of Jamal

Fourth Guided Caliph, Ali, was in power and was killed



Ahl al-Bayt



people of the house (caliphs should be selected by those divinely guided)

Wars Ridda

Some decided they didn't want to follow the Caliphs (abu baker) and took up arms against them. Eventually, they fell back into the caliphate.

Murder of Ali

Killed in Mosque with poison sword, after murder Umayyad dynasty began rule (the capital was Damascus)





Dihimmi

Non-muslim monotheists



Abbasid Rule

Bagdad as capital, followed Umayyad dynasty



Koran

114 chapters, holy text

Kaaba

Located at Mecca, ancient temple believed to built by Adam

Khadijah

Mohammad's first wife/ employer/ he was 25

Hadith

Composed from the records of Mohammad's words and deeds.

3 dimensions of Islam

1. Submission (acts)


2. Faith (thoughts, commitment)


3. Ihsan (what you intend, motivations)



Five Pillars of Islam

1. Shahadah (Bearing Witness)


2. Salet (To pray)


3. Zaqat (tax)


4. Sawm (fasting)


5. Hajj (Mecca)

Prayer

5x


morning


night


evening


noon


afternoon



Shariah

Rules



Eid al fitr

feat at the end of Ramahdan

Id al adha

feast of sacrifice (most important)

Key Controversy

Faith and Works



Kharijites

equated faith with work


if you are a muslim your work and faith must be the same


(strict and most people didn't follow)



Murjiites

Only God can judge who is a sinner.


More faith, less action



Muatazila

Advocates of freewill, all is up to us


Flourished under abbasid caliph mamun



Asharite

Reason is compatible with revelation


Some freewill bus God determines some things

4 Sunni Schools

1. Hanafi

2. Hanbali


3. Maliki


4. Shafi

1 School of Shii

Jafari

4 sources of Islamic Law

1. Koran


2. Example of Mohammad (Sunna)


3. Consensus (Ijma)


4. Reasoning and deduction (qiyas)

Veil

Commonplace item of clothing


Popular thing for middle class women to do

Jahilia

Age of Ignorance (before Islam came to be)