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30 Cards in this Set

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Whats the basic morphology and characteristics for Erysipelas?
a. G+, non-spore-forming, facultative anaerobe
b. short rods, rounded ends (may grow as long, non branching filaments)
c. catalase -
d. nonmotile
e. causes infections in swine, turkeys, humans
What are the virulence factors for Erysipelas rhusiopathiae?
a. cell wall
b. capsule
c. neuraminidase: 1) cleavage of sialic acid residueson endothelial cells --> thrombus formation; 2) thrombus may form diamond skin 3) virulent strains produce high amounts --> acute septicemic infections
Whats the pathogenesis for Erysipelas
What are some of the clinical signs associated with Erysipelas rhusiopathiae?
A. Swine
a. acute erysipelas: activation of macrophages by cell wall peptidoglycan--> TNF -alpha --> DIC (can occur concurrently with "diamond skin" dz)
b. "diamond skin" : almost pathognomic, can occur concurrently with acute phase, less severe form- infection may be limited to skin, deposition of Ag-Ab complexes in SQ vasculature --> thrombus
B. Turkeys
a. acute septicemia
b. swollen snood (almost pathognomonic
C. Sheep
a. polyarthritis
b. entry via umbilicus/wounds
Whats the primary immune response for Erysipelas?
a. Humoral
Whats the prevention for Erysipelas?
A. vaccine
a. sows/gilts, pre- breeding
b. boars (2x/yr)
c. grower pigs
B. age-segregation
C. all-in; all-out
What is the treatment for Erysipelas?
Penicilin may be used in both swine or turkeys.
Is Erysipelas zoonotic?
yes, people who are more susceptible to Erysipelas are:
a. veterinarians
b. abattoir wrokers
c. fish handlers
Clinical signs:
a. swelling at entry site
b. sepsis, endocarditis &/or septic arthritis.
What is the general morphology and characteristics for streptococcus?
a. G+ nonmotile cocci to ovoid
b. decolorize easily, especially older colonies (> 18 hrs; appear G-)
c. single, pairs to long chains (divide in one plane)
d. capsule in some species gives colonies a mucoid appearance.
e. facultative anaerobes
f. catalase negative
Where will you most likely find streptococcus?
a. widely distributed
b. environmentally resistant
c. colonize skin, GI tract, genital tract, upper respiratory tract
What is the mode of transmission for Streptococcus?
a. direct contact
b. fomites
c. ingestion
d. inhalation
How would you classify streptococcus?
A. hemolysis on blood agar
a. alpha - green discoloration (Hb --> met Hb)
b. beta - clearing of agar around colony (erythrocytes lysed; most pathogens in the beta hemolytic group)
c. Gamma - non-hemolytic (most nonpathogenic)
B. Lancefield groups
a. grouping based on Ab to surface carbohydrate Ag.
b. categorized in series of letters
What are some of the virulent factors found in Streptococcus?
A. adhesins
a. multiple surface proteins that bind extracellular matrix
b. M prot
1) mediates attachment to CD46
2) binds to extracellular matrix prot; may coat surface of bacT with fibronectin (camouflage)
3) C4b binding-reducing phagocytosis
4) bind complement-control prot.- preventing opsonization
5) bind Fc portion of Ig's --> disrupt classical pathway
B. Cell Wall
C. Capsule -- hyaluronic acid
1) poorly antigenic; 2) does not bind complement well
D. Toxins, enzymes
1) streptolysin S (SLS): b-hemolysis; flesh eating BacT.
2) streptokinase
3) streptococcus Dnases
E. Leukocidal toxin ( S. equi)
F. Acid production (S. muntans) tooth decay
Streptococci pyogenes
a. Group A (GAS)- at least 80 types
b. human pharyngitis, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis, toxic shock syndrome, "'flesh-eathing" BacT.
c. rarely associated with bovine mastitis
d. not considered part of normal flora of veterinary species (person--> person; pet --> person is rare)
Streptococci pneumoniae
Does not have a Lancefield Classification
a. tend to occur in pairs, also revered to as "diplococcus"
b. important human pathogen (human is a reservoir: anthroponosis)
c. pneumonia in guinea pigs, horses, nonhuman primates
d. menigitis
e. aerosol, asymptomatic carriers
f. uncommon cause of infections in other species
Streptococci agalatiae
a. Group B - 5 types
b. contagious mastitis in dairy cattle
c. obligate mammary pathogen; ID aided by CAMP test (hemolytic synergism: Staphylcoccal beta toxin and "CAMP factor" of S. agalactiae)
d. sm. ruminants (mastitis); horses (genital tract infections); dogs (vaginal, skin infections); Cats (kidney, uterine infections); Humans (neonatal sepsis/meningitis)
What type of Streptococcus are involved in bovine mastitis?
a. S. agalactiae
b. S. dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae (alpha or gamma hemolysis)
c. S. uberis (alpha/gamma hemolysis)
d. others (e.g. S. pyogenes)
Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. dysgalactiae
Group C
a. A/Y hemolytic
b. bovine mastitis
c. lamb polyarthritis (septic)
Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis
Group C
a. B hemolytic
b. uncommon cause of abscesses, UTI in dogs
c. Occasionally wound infections of horses
Streptococcus equi ssp. equi
Group C
a. B hemolytic
b. encapsulated
c. Equine "strangles"
1) fever, purulent rhinitis/pharyngitis
2) upper airways, guttural pouches
3) abscessed L.N. typically mandibular and pharyngeal
4) may become systemic
5) chronic carrier state possible
d. baterin available
Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus
Group C
a. B hemolytic
b. encapsulated
c. many serotypes
d. Horses:
1) asymptomatic carriage- oral cavity, pharynx, respiratory tract
2) opportunistic - resp and genital tracts
3) other infections (wounds, osteomyelitis, arthritis)
e. occasional infections in other species: cervical lymphadenitis (guinea pigs)
Streptococcus suis
Group S & R
a. alpha hemolytic
b. Type 2 causes meningitis, srthritis, endocarditis, abortion in swine
1) contagious via tonsillar carriage
2) zoonotic: menigitis, otitis, septicemia --> can be fatal (handle/eat uncooked pork)
c. Type 1 causes neonatal septicemia, polyarthritis of young pigs
d. management very important for prevention (vaccine not routinely used)
Streptococcus porcinus
Group E
a. B hemolytic
b. L.N. abscesses in swine: 1) cervial lymphadenitis; 2) jowl, head, neck abscesses; 3) carcass condemnation
Streptococcus canis
Group G
a. B-hemolytic
b. commensal of skin, mucosa of dogs and cats
c. neonatal infections
d. some suppurative conditions
e. Toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing fasciitis in dogs and cats
Streptococcus bovis (or S. equinus)
Group D
a. occurs in alimentary tract (horse, ruminant)
b. nonpathogenic
c. rarely zoonotic
What are the general morphology and characteristics for Enterococcus?
Group D Enterococci
a. G+
b. catalase negative
c. cocci to ovoid shape in pairs, chains
d. A/Y hemolysis
c. facultative anaerobe
e. commensals (GI)
f. Multiple-antibiotic resistant
1) Vancomycin Resistant
2) "jumping genes"
3) vanA- cleaves vancomycin
What are some of the clinical findings associated with Enterococcus?
a. associated with wounds or any compromised site in most species
b. Dogs and cats:
1) asymptomatic colonization
2) UTI (nosocomial and community- acquired)
3) otitis externa
c. puppies, kittens, foals, calves, piglets, and infant rats
1) diarrhea-associated Enterococci (E. durans, E. hirae, E. villorum)
What are the treatments for B-hemolytic Streps?
Sensitive: 1) Penicillins 2) Cephalosporins
Resistant: 1) aminoglycosides 2) Fluoroguinolones 3) Tetracycline
What are the treatments for Enterococci?
important to perform culture sensitivity tests
Resistant to: 1)B-lactams 2) Aminoglycosides 3) Fluoroguinolones 4) potentiated sulfas
b. vancomycin-R vet med isolates have been found
useful summary for Staph, Strep, and Enterococcus.
a. most A and Y hemolytic species are found in normal flora w/exception of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, S. suis
b. B hemolytic species are usually pathogens but may be isolated in some cases from normal animals
c. Group D enterococci are normal flora for most species and are opportunistic pathogens
d. Enterococci inherently resistant to many antibiotics.