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55 Cards in this Set

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What is an Archaea?

Bacteria like organisms

State 5 similiar characteristics of bacteria and archaea.

1) don't have nuclear membrane


2) have few internal membrane organelles


3) have 1 chromosome only with circular DNA


4) They are mainly single (uni) celled organisms


5) They are usually 1-10micrometres in size

State 5 differences between bacteria and archaeans

1) have different ribosomal RNA mechanisms


2) B have fewer proteins associated with DNA. A associates proteins like Eu (histone-like proteins


3) B cell wall contains peptidoglycan (A don't)


4) Some B have chlorophyll e.g. for photosynthesis. (A do not)


5) B tolerates extreme habitats (A very extreme)

Name the 6 types of bactera/ archaeas.

a) Halophiles


b) Thermophiles


c) Acidophiles


d) Psychrophiles


e) Methanogens


f) Methanotrophs

What term is given to bacteria/archaeans which can tolerate high salt levels?

Halophiles

Up to what % can halophiles tolerate.

15-20%

Give an examples of a halophiles

Halobacterium (purple bacteria and Archaeans)

What term is given to the bacteria/ aracheans which can tolerate high temperatures?

Thermophiles

Give examples of thermophiles (bacteria and archaeans) and where do they habitat?

Some B e.g. Thermus inhabits hot water springs


Some A e.g. Pyrobolus line in deep sea vents

What term is given to bacteria/archaeans which can tolerate acid?

Acidophiles

Give examples of acidophile's habitat

- A can thrive in hot springs (acidic pH2)


- acidic coal mine wastes (self heating 32-80oC)





Give an example of an acidophile which has no cell wall

Thermoplasma

Give a term for bacteria/archaeans which can tolerate cold conditions.

Psychrophiles

Give an example of an psychrophile

Psychrobacter

Give the term for bacteria/archaeanas which form methane gas.

Methanogens

How do methanogens function? How do some A gain energy?

- Methanogens carry out anaerobic respiration.


- Some A gain energy (ATP) by converting H & C from Co2 and CH4.



Give an example of an methanogens

Methanococcus


Give the term for bacteria/archaeans which use methane gas.

Methanotrophs

What sort of respiration do methanotrophs carry out? How do they gain energy, by converting what?

- carry out aerobic respiration.


- Use H from CH4 + O2 --> to produce CO2 + Energy (ATP)

Give an example of methanotrophs

Thermotogales

Describe the three forms of bacterial diversity (bacteria which can be found in nature)

- Unicellular (occur as plates, blocks, chains & clusters)


- Colonies (collection of cells)


- Filamentous (linear cell array)

State the 4 shapes (morphology) of bacteria which can be found in nature.

- Spherical (coccus)


- Cylindrical Rods (bacillus)


- Comma


- Helical (spirilli)

Give an example of a (spherical) coccus bacteria

e.g. micrococcus 

e.g. micrococcus

Give an example of a bacillus bacteria

e.g. Clostridium 

e.g. Clostridium

Give an example of a comma bacteria

e.g. Vibrio 

e.g. Vibrio

Give an example of a spirilli bacteria

e.g. Rhodospirillum 

e.g. Rhodospirillum

What is the flagella used for in a bacteria?

- used for motility (movement)

Give an example of a bacteria which has a flagella

- soil pseudomonas 

- soil pseudomonas

What is axial filament?

- its a modified flagella which allows the bacteria to carry out corkscrew movement.

Name a bacteria which has an axial filament.

 e.g. spirochete 

e.g. spirochete

What are the features of fimbrae?

- short


- rigid


- numerous hair-like structures.

What are fimbrae used for?

- Used for attachement, feeding, receptors for some bacteriophages. 

- Used for attachement, feeding, receptors for some bacteriophages.



What are the features of a pili?

- longer on a cell wall but less numerous

What is the use of pili?

- Adherence (attachment to other cells)


- Cell mating

Name a bacteria which uses pili

e.g. E coli 

e.g. E coli

What bacteria uses gliding and rolling in water?



What other way does cyanobacteria move in water?

by producing gas vesicles.

What term is given to the slimy carbohydrate that surrounds the cell wall?

Capsule/slime sheath/ mucilaginous sheath

Name a bacteria which has slimy capsule?

e.g. Nostoc 

e.g. Nostoc

What bacteria causes MRSA?

Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus 

Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus

What bacteria causes pneumonia?

Pneumococcus

Pneumococcus

What bacteria causes typhoid fever and food poisoning?

Salmonella 

Salmonella

What bacteria causes syphilis

  Treponema  

Treponema

What bacteria causes tetanus?

clostridium 

clostridium

What bacteria causes the plague?

Yersinia

Yersinia

What bacterium causes food poisoning?

- salmonella


- clostridium


- Vibrio

What bacteria causes Tuberculosis?

Mycobacterium 

Mycobacterium

What do bacteria decompose?

Dead organic matter

Give an example of bacteria which decomposes DOM.

e.g. pseudomonas 

e.g. pseudomonas

In which 4 cycles (which convert elements in different chemical forms) are bacteria mediated?

- N cycle


- C cycle


- S cycle


- P cycle

State the habitat of symbiotic pseudomonas and cyanobacteria.

Pseudomonas --> rood nodules (fix N)


Cyanobacteria --> free living in water (photosyn)

Why is bacteria important in agricultural soils?

- they carry out nutrient mobilisation



Give examples of bacteria which carry out nutrient mobilisation.

- pseudomonas


- nitrobacter

Which organisms see bacteria as a food source?

Protozoans


- filter feeding invertebrates (aquatic insect larvae)

Commercially, which industries use bacteria for product manafacture?

- dairy foods


- yoghurt


- cheese


- vinegar


- cattle food


- pesticides (mosquito larvae)