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89 Cards in this Set

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Why is an internal skeleton advantageous over an external one? (4)

- Supports body and provides framework


- It's easy to attach muscles to it


- More flexible than external


- Can grow with the body

What type of tissue is cartilage and bone?

Living

Describe the structure of a long bone

- Head with covering of cartilage


- Shaft containing marrow cavity, which has blood vessels

Why are long bones hollow?

Makes movement more efficient:


- Lighter than solid bones


- Stronger than solid bones of the same mass

Cartilage and bone are susceptible to _______ but can ______ and _______ themselves

Infection,


Grow,


Repair

Describe the process of ossification as the human skeleton develops

1) Skeleton starts off as cartilage


2) Slowly ossified - blood vessels deposit calcium and phosphorus


3) Replaces cartilage, eventually becomes bone

How can we tell if a person is still growing?

By checking the amount of cartilage present in their bones

Despite being very _____, bones can be easily_____ by a _______ ________

Strong,


Broken,


Sharp knock

Why are elderly people more prone to fractures?

Elderly = more likely to suffer from osteoporosis, condition where calcium from bones is lost.




Bones become softer, more brittle and more likely to break.

Why can it be dangerous to move a person with a suspected fracture

A broken bone can easily damage nearby tissue

Why is it especially important not to move someone with a suspected spinal fracture?

You could damage their spinal cord, which can lead to paralysis

Give an example of a ball and socket joint, and describe its range of movement

- Like the hip and shoulder


- Can move in all directions and rotate

Give an example of a hinge joint and describe its range of movement

- E.g. Knees or elbow


- Can go backwards and forwards, not side to side

Name the 4 parts of a synovial joint and describe the function of each

- Bones at synovial joints held together by ligaments


- End of bones have cartilage, stops bones rubbing together and acts as a shock absorber (Can be slightly compressed)


- Synovial membrane releases synovial fluid


- Synovial fluid lubricates the joint, making it easier to move

How do the biceps and triceps operate to bend and straighten the arm?

They contract and relax as antaganositic muscles

The arm bending and straightening is an example of a....

Lever (Might want to explain how)

B5b

yh

Why do many animals need a blood circulatory system?

All living cells need to be supplied with materials e.g. oxygen and glucose. Animals are multicellular (too big to get materials through diffusion). Needed to transport materials efficiently around their bodies.

Describe a single circulatory system, and explain why it links to a two-chambered heart.

- 1 circuit of blood vessels from the heart, pumps around in cycle


- 2 chambered heart needed, 1 chamber needed to pump blood to gills (fish) and body, and 1 to receive blood

Describe a double circulatory system and explain why it links to a four-chambered heart

- 2 circuits of blood vessels from the heart - 1 to lungs and 1 to rest of body


- 4 chambers needed to pump blood separately to lungs and body (1 to receive from lungs, 1 to pump to lungs, 1 to receive from body, 1 to pump to body)

Compare the circulatory systems of fish and mammals

Fish - Single circulatory system


Mammals - Double circulatory system

Describe the contribution of Galen towards the understanding of blood circulation i.e. what he did and what he concluded from it

1) Cut up animals to study them, so found out about chambers in the heart


2) Thought arterial blood was made by heart


3) Thought blood from veins was made by liver, sucked through veins to heart and consumed by the organs

Describe the contribution of William Harvey towards the understanding of blood circulation i.e. what he did and what he concluded from it (4)

1) Heart valves stopped back flow of blood


2) The heart was a pump, not a sucker!


3) Pulse is caused by heart pumping blood and arteries


4) Same blood recycled around body, not made then consumed


Might want to describe experiments

What makes a double circulatory system advantageous over a single system?

- In a single system- blood loses pressure as pumped to gills then rest of body, double = blood under higher pressure


- Allows materials to be transported around the body more quickly

What is the cardiac cycle? Explain the steps

- The sequence of events in one complete heartbeat


1) - Blood flows into 2 atria. Semilunar valves closed, atrio-ventricular valves open


2) - Atria contract, pushes blood into the ventricles. Semilunar valves closed, atrio-ventricular valves open


3) - Ventricles contract, force blood into aorta and pulmonary artery. Semilunar open, atrio-ventricular close automatically


4) - Blood flows along the arteries, atria fill again in cycle


How is heart rate linked to activity?

When you exercise, heart pumps more (muscles need more O2)


Also caused by hormones, e.g. adrenaline to make sure muscles have a good supply of oxygen

How is heart muscle contraction controlled?

By groups of cells called the pacemakers which produce small electric current to stimulate muscle contraction

True or false? Artificial pacemakers are now commonly used to control heartbeat

True

Apart from exercise, why else could your heart rate increase?

Also caused by hormones, e.g. adrenaline to make sure muscles have a good supply of oxygen

Name the two pacemaker cells

SAN - sino-atrial node


AVN - atrio-ventricular node

Describe how the pacemaker cells coordinate muscle contraction

SAN produces current first, spreads to atria to make them contract.


These impulses stimulate the AVN, making them impulse too.


The AVN impulses make ventricles contract

Name 2 techniques used to investigate heart action and what they show

Electrocardiogram (ECG) - Show electrical activity of heart


- Can show heart attacks, irregular heartbeats and general heart health


Echocardiogram - Ultrasound scan of heart


- Can show heart failure (enlarged heart), valve function and decreased pumping ability

B5c: Running repairs

yh

What is a hole in the heart?

A gap in the septum which separates the 2 atria and ventricles

How does a hole in the heart result in less oxygen in the blood?

Blood can move from 1 side of the heart to the other freely, so de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood mix. Amount of oxygen in blood pumped to body is reduced

Hole in the heart sometimes needs to be ______ though_______

Corrected surgery

Why do unborn babies have a hole in the heart?

Get their oxygen from mother's placenta, blood doesn't need to travel to lungs.

Why does the hole close soon after birth?

Oxygen no longer available placenta, need to get it from the lungs so the lungs can no longer be bypassed.

Explain the consequences of damaged or weak valves

- Blood circulation is made less effective (maybe expand?)

What usually happens if the valves are severely damaged?

They are replaced with artificial ones

What are the consequences of a blocked coronary artery?

Coronary heart disease:


- Reduces blood flow to heart muscle

How do you treat coronary heart disease?

Coronary bypass surgery, blood vessel from somewhere else inserted to bypass blockage

Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of pacemakers or artificial heart valves over a heart transplant

Advantages


- Not usually rejected


- Valve replacement/ pacemaker is less drastic than transplant


Disadvantages


- New valves/ pacemakers won't last, need replacement

Aside from a heart transplant, you can also...

Use a heart assist device, which pumps blood in place of heart

Name 3 drugs used to control blood clotting

Warfarin, heparin and aspirin

Describe the process of blood clotting

- Platelets come into contact with damaged blood vessels, cause a series of chemical reactions leading to formation of a mesh of fibrin fibres (i.e. a clot)

Unsuccessful blood transfusions cause...

Agglutination (blood clumping)

Describe blood donating and transfusion

Donation - give some spare blood for medical uses


Transfusion - using blood from a blood donor

Why can some blood types only be given to others?

Some blood types have antibodies which will cause failure (+agglutination) if they encounter the opposing antigen in the blood transfusion (e.g. anti-A antibodies won't allow A antigens)

Name the 4 blood types

A, B, O, AB

Which blood types have which antigens?

A - A


B - B


AB - A and B


O- None

Which blood types have which antibodies?

A - anti-B


B - anti-A


AB - None


O - anti-A and anti-B

What blood types can each blood type donate to?

A - A and AB


B - B and AB


AB - AB


O - Anyone (Universal donor)

What blood types can each blood type receive?

A - A and O


B - B and O


AB - Anyone (Universal receiver)


O - Only O

Where can these antibodies and antigens be found?

In red blood cells and blood serum

B5d: Respiratory systems

yh

Why do methods of gas exchange in fish and amphibians restrict them to their watery habitats?

- Amphibians - permeable skin means they are susceptible to excessive water loss in dry places


- Fish - gills work by forcing water across the filaments

What would you use to measure lung capacities?

A spirometer

What is ventilation? Give the 2 stages and explain them

Breathing


1) Inspiration (breathing in) - Intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract, so volume of thorax increases (Part that contains lungs)


Pressure decreases as lungs expand, air comes in


2) Expiration - Intercostals, diaphragm relax, thorax volume decreases


Pressure up, air forced out

What is tidal air?

Volume of air you breathe in(or out) in one normal breath

What is vital air capacity?

Maximum amount of air which can be breathed in or out. (Total lung capacity - residual air)

What is residual air?

The amount of air always in the lungs to keep them open.

How are gaseous exchange surfaces (like the alveoli) adapted to efficient gaseous exchange? Give at least 3

- Permeable surface (helps gas exchange)


- Moist surface (Helps O2 and CO2 dissolve)


- Large surface area (Increase diffusion rate)


- Good blood supply


- Thin lining (1 cell thick) - don't have to diffuse far

What happens in gaseous exchange within the alveoli?

- Alveoli has high oxygen concentration, diffuses to low oxygen concentration blood


- Blood has high carbon dioxide concentration, diffuses into alveoli and vice versa

What happens during an asthma attack?

1) Lining of the airways becomes inflamed


2) Fluid builds up in airways


3) Muscles around bronchiole contract, constricts airways

What are the symptoms of asthma?(At least 2) How is it treated? (1)

- Difficulty breathing, wheezing, tight chest


- Treated with inhalers

Why is the respiratory system prone to diseases/infections?

-It's a dead end, microbes aren't easily flushed out from there

Give 2 ways the respirator system/tract protects itself from disease?

- Mucus catches dust/microbes before they reach the lungs


- Cilia beat away microbe filled mucus away from lungs as phlegm

Give the 2 places you would find these defences the respiratory system has against disease.

The trachea (windpipe) and bronchi (tubes to the lungs)

Name the 3 different types of causes for lung diseases

Industrial, genetic and lifestyle

What type of cause is asbestosis? Briefly describe the disease

- Industrial cause


- Inflammation + scarring limits gas exchange

What type of cause is cystic fibrosis? Briefly describe the disease

- Genetic cause


- Too much mucus in the bronchioles

What type of disease cause is lung cancer? Describe lung cancer briefly

- Life style cause


- Cells grow rapidly, reducing surface area in lungs

B5e: Digestion

Cocker

Give at least 1 reason why physical digestion is important?

- Helps food pass more easily through the digestive system


- Provides food with a larger surface area - chemical digestion = quicker

Name the 3 digestive enzymes

Carbohydrate, protease and lipase

C_________ breaks down ______ into ______ and is found in the _______

Carbohydrase breaks down starch into sugar and is found in the mouth

P________ breaks down _______ to ________ and is found in the ________

Protease breaks down protein into amino acids and is found in the stomach

L_________ breaks down ______ to _______ and ________ and is found in the ____ _______

Lipase breaks down fats to fatty acids and glycerol and is found in the small intestine

_________ aids protease function (takes it to optimum level)

Stomach acid, or around pH 2

Where is bile stored?

The gallbladder

How does bile improve fat digestion? (minimum 1 point)

Breaks down fat in small intestine into small droplets (emulsifies it) for bigger surface area for lipase to work on.


Bile is alkaline, so neutralises acts from stomach for optimum conditions for the small intestine enzymes

Why is the stomach pH acidic, but mouth and small intestines have a _____ or ______ pH.

Mouth and small intestines have a neutral or alkaline pH


Needed for specific enzymes (e.g. protease in tummeh) to function + work in optimum conditions

Name the 2 steps in the breakdown of starch

1) Starch first broken down into maltose


2) Maltose broken down into glucose

Why do large molecules need to be broken down into smaller molecules?

So they can be absorbed into the blood plasma/lymph, + provides a larger surface area for chemical digestion (enzymes to work)

How do small digested food molecules get absorbed and distributed to the rest of the body?

1) Small food molecules diffuse into blood plasma/lymph from small intestine


2) Lymph emptied into blood, and blood plasma diffuse out to places where needed (e.g. glucose to muscels)

Give at least 2 ways the small intestine is adapted for efficient absorption of food?

1) Long - time to break down + absorb food before end


2) Big surface area due to to villi (small projections) on the intestine walls


3) Villi themselves have microvilli, more little projections - Surface area up


4) Villi have single permeable layer of surface layer (THIN LINING) for quick absorption


5) Good blood supply = efficient absorption

B5f: Waste disposal

I'm tired

k

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