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28 Cards in this Set

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What are enzymes?

Large, soluble protein molecules that speed up the chemical reactions inside cells.

Each type of enzyme does a specific job. True or false?


Enzymes are a type of:


Enzymes are made from:

Long chains of different amino acids.

What is DNA?

A long molecule made up of twisted strands of the bases A, T, C and G.

Genes are sections of the:


Each gene has the code for:

creating a specific protein

What does the sequence of bases in the gene control?

Which amino acids are created and joined to make a specific new protein (or enzyme) molecule.

Most of our energy comes from the process of:

Aerobic respiration

Aerobic respiration takes place inside:

The mitochondria of cells

Mitochondria are oval structures with:
A folded inner membrane

Mitochondria occur in large numbers inside [?] and liver cells, where large amounts of [?] are needed.

>Muscle cells


The mitochondria hold a large number of different [?] which are responsible for different stages of [?].



The amino acids must occur in the correct [?] for the enzyme to work.


The amino acids' sequence is controlled by the [?] for the protein.

>Genetic code

The genetic codes for the protein are held in:

DNA molecules

DNA molecules are very long and packed into compact structures called:


Each DNA molecule consists of two twisted strands of [?] that form a shape called a double [?].


>Double helix

The two twisted strands of bases are held together by [?] between [?] of bases.



When a cell grows and divides into two, it first has to make a:

Duplicate copy of each DNA molecule

When a cell grows and divides into two, it first has to make a [?] copy of each DNA molecule. This is done by the bonds [?] between the two strands, the strands [?], and then [?] joining each old strand to make [?].




>New bases

>New strands

A,G,C,T. Who pairs with who?



The sequence of bases in one section (gene) of a DNA molecule controls the:

Sequence of amino acids in one protein molecule

Each amino acid has its own code of:

3 bases

Every time the same sequence of three bases occurs in the DNA molecule,..?

The same amino acid is added to make up the protein.

When a protein is being made, the two strands of the double helix:

Unzip, so that the base sequence can be read.

The amino acids used to make up new proteins are absorbed from food in the:

Digestive system

It's possible for the liver to make more of a particular amino acid if needed in a process called: