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79 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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What is the lithosphere made from?

Crust and top part of mantle

Cold and rigid

Why do tectonic plates float on the mantle?

They are less dense than the mantle

What two natural disasters happen at plate boundaries?

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

What is igneous rock?

Magma or lava that had solidified

Explain how the rate of cooling affects the crystal size in a peice of igneous rock

The slower the rock cools, the larger the crystals or reverse argument

What are the proterties of iron-rich basalt?

It is runny and has safe eruptions

How are aluminum and iron extracted from the earth?

As ores

Give an example of a material that just needs to be shaped before it can be used as a building material

Limestone or Marble or granite

Briefly explain how cement is made

Clay and limestone are heated together

Why is it important to recycle metals?

It is cheaper and can reduce the use of limited natural resources

What is an alloy?

A mixture of a metal with another element

Why is glass used to make car windscreens?

It is transparent

What two elements are needed for iron to rust?

Oxygen (in air) and water

Which elements are found in ammonia?

Nitrogen and hydrogen

What conditions are needed for the Haber process?

450°,200 atmospheres and an iron catalyst

What is a reversible reaction?

A reaction that can go forwards or backwards

What is an acid?

A chemical with a pH or less than 7

What is an alkali?

A chemical with a pH greater than 7 and can dissolve in water (a soluble base)

What is the general word equation for the reaction between a metal carbonate and an acid?

Acid+metal carbonate –> salt+water +carbon dioxide

What is a fertilizer?

A chemical that gives plants essential chemicals needed for growth

What three elements are found in fertilizers?

Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus

What chemicals do you use to make ammonium sulfate in a neutralisation reaction?

Ammonimia and sulfuric acid

Why do plants absorb soluble nitrate fertilizer?

They use it to make protein

What are three products of the electrolysis of the sodium chloride solution?

Sodium hydroxide, hydrogen and chlorine

How is household bleach made?

By reacting chlorine and sodium hydroxide together

What is a use for chlorine?

To sterilise water, to make household bleach and to make plastics

Why do farmers use fertilizer?

To increase crop yield

Name two reactants used for making ammonia?

Air/ oxygen and water

What happens at a subduction zone?

Where a continental plate and an oceanic plate collide. The more dense oceanic plate is pushed under the continental and down into the mantle where it melts. The result is a mountain range and possibly volcanoes.

What is a rate of reaction?

A measure of the amount of product made in a specific time.

Give an example of untis which would be used to measure the rate of reaction for mass change reactions

g/s or g/min

How can rate of reaction be increased?

Increase temperature, increase concentration or increase pressure or add a catalyst

Explain how temperature can increase the rate of reaction?

The reactant particles have more kinetic energy and move around faster making more successful collisions likely to happen making them more likely to form a product

When 12g of carbon is completely burned in oxygen, 10g of carbon dioxide is made. Calculate the percentage yield

10 ➗ 44 ✖ 100 =22.7

What the formula atom economy?

Atom economy = Mr of desired product ➗ sum of Mr of all products ✖100

Give an example of a chemical that is made by batch

Medicines or Pharmaceutical drugs

Name the four stages of extracting plants chemicals from plants

Crushing, boiling, dissolving then chromatography

Name three allotropes of carbon

Diamond, graphite and Buckminster Fullerene

What is the formula for Buckminster Fullerene?


Explain why the materials needed to make new medicines are so expensive

They could be rare and require expensive extraction from plants

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using a batch process to make a chemical

You can make a product quickly, yoi can make a product on a small scale and the equipment can be used to make a variety of products

What must happen to particlee in order for a reaction to take place?

They must collide with sufficient energy

What happens to particles when you increase the concentration?

There are more particles in the same volume so they are more crowded which makes them collide more often with more energy resulting in successful collisions and so an increase in the rate of reaction

Explain why a powdered solid reacts faster than a lump of the same substance?

It has a larger surface area in relation to it's volume, this increases the chance of collision and speeds up the reaction.

What two factors affect the rate of reaction?

Presence of a catalyst, temperature, concentration or pressure.

What is a tropic level?

A position or stage an organism occupies in the food chain

Name the arthropod classes

Crustacean, instect, arachnid and Myriapod

List the four ways in which energy is lost at each stage in the food chain

Heat, respiration, excretion and egestion

Why is it difficult to class hybrids?

They don't fit easily into any group

Name two recycled elements

Carbon and Nitrogen

How much nitrogen is found naturally in the air?


Describe the function of nitrifying bacteria

Converts ammonia into nitrates

What is the tern given to organisms that survive by living off other organisms?


Give an example of a mutualistic relationship

The oxpecker and the buffalo

Name the competition that takes place between members of the same species


Who first put forward the theory of evolution?

Charles Darwin

Explain why a species might become extinct or endangered?

If they are unable to compete due to climate change, damage to habitat, hunting, pollution or competition

What organism shows natural selection today?

Peppered moths

Bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics

Rats resistant to poison

Why were Darwin's ideas not to popular?

They didn't agree with the Bible.

What does sulfur dioxide in the air cause?

Acid rain

How are indicator species useful?

Their presence of absence helps to indicate levels of pollution

What is ment by the term carbon footprint?

The amount of greenhouse gases given off in a given time per person or by an action or an event

What is meant by the term endangered species?

An animal or plant close to becoming extinct because numbers are so low

How can we protect endangered species?

Protect habitats

Legal protection

Education programmes

Captive breeding

What are whales used for, dead or alive?

Dead whales can be used for oil, food and cosmetics

Live whales can be used as a tourist attraction

What does the international whale commission do to protect whale numbers?

Sets quotas

Where does respiration take place in a cell?


Begins with an M

How to the four bases in DNA pair up?



Write down the word equation for aerobic respiration

Glucose+oxygen—>carbon dioxide +water +energy

What is produced during anaerobic respiration?

Lactic acid

What are gametes?

Sex cells

In which organs does meiosis occur?

Sex organs

Name the process of producing organisms with desired characteristics through a breeding programme

Selective breeding

What is gene therapy?

Changing a person's genes in an attempt to cure a genetic disorder

How has genetic engineering helped some people with diabetes?

The production of human insulin by genetically engineered bacteria.

Give an example of naturally occurring clones in mammals


What was the first animal to be artificially cloned?

Dolly The Sheep

Suggest some possible uses for cloning

Mass production of animals with desirable characteristics

Producing lots of animals which produce a human product

Producing human embryos to supply stem cells for therapy

What is a clone?

An identical copy of an organism