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39 Cards in this Set

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New pig factories are multiplying around Poland as the country tries to bring cheap food to Europe's hypermarkets.

The village of Wieckowice has a community which is deeply divided by pig factories. Some locals have got new jobs, earning higher incomes, and are driving smarter cars. Others are feeling angry. They say Polish pig factories are polluting their earth, air and water, as well as putting their small farms out of business.

Keeping hundreds of pigs inside one building is cost-effective. However it produces large amounts of waste. Pig faeces and urine form slurry which can be a dangerous pollutant. Studies have shown that slurry ponds emit toxic gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. These gases cause headaches, eye irritations, mood alterations and fatigue.

Explain why ''keeping hundreds of pigs inside one building is cost-effective''
Any 2 from:

-- pigs grow faster
-- labour costs lower
-- bulk buying of food cheaper
-- because less movement / temperature controlled
New pig factories are multiplying around Poland as the country tries to bring cheap food to Europe's hypermarkets.

The village of Wieckowice has a community which is deeply divided by pig factories. Some locals have got new jobs, earning higher incomes, and are driving smarter cars. Others are feeling angry. They say Polish pig factories are polluting their earth, air and water, as well as putting their small farms out of business.

Keeping hundreds of pigs inside one building is cost-effective. However it produces large amounts of waste. Pig faeces and urine form slurry which can be a dangerous pollutant. Studies have shown that slurry ponds emit toxic gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. These gases cause headaches, eye irritations, mood alterations and fatigue.

Explain why some villagers are in favour of ''pig factories''
Cheaper food (1 mark)

New jobs / higher income / new cars (1 mark)
New pig factories are multiplying around Poland as the country tries to bring cheap food to Europe's hypermarkets.

The village of Wieckowice has a community which is deeply divided by pig factories. Some locals have got new jobs, earning higher incomes, and are driving smarter cars. Others are feeling angry. They say Polish pig factories are polluting their earth, air and water, as well as putting their small farms out of business.

Keeping hundreds of pigs inside one building is cost-effective. However it produces large amounts of waste. Pig faeces and urine form slurry which can be a dangerous pollutant. Studies have shown that slurry ponds emit toxic gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. These gases cause headaches, eye irritations, mood alterations and fatigue.

Explain why some villagers are against ''pig factories''
Large amounts of waste (1 mark)

One effect of waste: headaches / eye irritations / mood alterations / fatigue (1 mark)
Cystic Fibrosis is a disorder of _________________________
Cell membranes
Explain as fully as you can, how a person usually inherits Cystic Fibrosis.
Caused by recessive alleles (1 mark)

Both parents carriers / do not have condition (1 mark)

Recieves 1 recessive allele from each (1 mark)
One effect of Cystic Fibrosis in some patients is that enzymes from the pancreas do not reach food in the intestine. Doctors now give capsules containing enzymes to these patients.

Name 3 digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas.

1. ______________
2. ______________
3. ______________
Amylase

Protease

Lipase
The first attempts at giving pancreatic enzymes involved giving a pill consisting of powdered pancreatic enzymes to the patient. The treatment failed. When scientists investigated why this happened, they found the enzymes from the pill in the stomach of the patient, but not in the intestine.

Suggest two possible reasons why the enzymes in the pill did not reach the small intestine.

1. ______________
2. ______________
1. Acid destroys enzymes

2. Enzymes digested by stomach enzymes
Which organ in the body monitors blood sugar concentration?
Pancreas
How is diabetes detected by doctors?
Blood/Urine sugar test
Describe, in as much detail as you can, how the body responds to an increase in blood sugar concentration. (3 marks)
Any 3 from:

-- pancreas
-- secretes insulin
-- glucose/sugar converted to glycogen
-- in liver
Name the process in which green plants transfer solar energy into chemical compounds.
Photosynthesis
Name the process in living organisms which eventually results in the transfer of heat to the environment.
Respiration
Give two ways in which energy is transferred from animals to detrius feeders.

1. ____________
2. ____________
Any 2 from:

-- death
-- urine
-- faeces
What is meant by a stem cell?
Cell that can be made to differentiate into other types of cell
Stem cells divide by mitosis.

Explain why cells produced by mitosis have identical genetic information.
Chromosomes copied (1 mark) before cell division (1 mark)
Plants make glucose during photosynthesis. Some of the glucose is changed into insoluble starch.

What happens to this starch?
The starch is stored for later use.
Give two ways in which the energy, released in respiration is used by a herbivore.

1. ___________
2. ___________
Any 2 from:

-- (body) heat / maintaining body temperature
-- movement
-- growth / cell division / repair / reproduction / building molecules
Some farmers keep their animals outdoors. Other farmers keep their animals indoors.

Keeping farm animals indoors increases the proportion of energy in their food that is converted into growth.

Give 2 reasons why.

1. ___________
2. ___________
Any 2 from:

-- less movement
-- less heat loss
-- less respiration
Other than carbon dioxide, name two other carbon compounds found in plants.

1. ___________
2. ___________
Any 2 from:

-- carbohydrate / named example
-- protein / enzyme
-- amino acid
-- hormone / named plant hormone
-- lipid / fat / oil / wax
-- chlorophyll
-- DNA
-- vitamin(s)
Gardeners use compost heaps to decay dead plants. Decayed compost is then spread onto the soil in a garden.

Explain why gardeners spread decayed compost onto the soil.
Contains: minerals / salts / ions / nutrients / named (1 mark)

which is needed by plants for health / better growth (1 mark)
Name one useful substance produced by the pancreas.
Any 1 from:

-- insulin / hormone
-- enzyme / named enzyme
Conditions inside the body must be kept constant.

Urea must be removed from the body.

Name the organ which makes urea.
Liver
Which organ removes urea from the body?
Kidney
What is urea made from?
excess protein / amino acids / ammonia
How do the blood vessels in the skin change when core body temperature falls?
Become narrower / constrict
Bile is produced in the liver and is released into the small intestine.

Explain how bile helps the digestion of milk.
Acid neutralised or conditions made neutral / bile is alkaline (1 mark)

Enzymes in small intestine work more effectively. (1 mark)
Nearly every organism on earth has an even number of chromosomes in its body cells.

Suggest why.
Chromosomes are in pairs | inherited one of each pair from each parent | one of each pair is in egg AND one of each pair is in sperm.
Chromosomes contain DNA molecules.

Describe the function of DNA. (2 marks)
It is a code (1 mark) for forming specific proteins (1 mark)

It is a combination/sequence of amino acids (1 mark)
Body cells divide by mitosis.

Why is the ability of body cells to divide important?
For: growth / repair / replacement / asexual reproduction (1 mark)
A fish farmer feeds trout on food made from soya beans.

When the trout are large enough the farmer sells them for food for people.

It would be more energy efficient if people ate the soya beans rather than eating the trout.

Which two of the following are reasons for this?

- Some people do not like eating animals such as trout.
- The trout release energy when they respire.
- Soya bean plants release energy when they respire.
- Some energy will be lost in waste from the trout.
- Soya bean plants absorb energy during photosynthesis.
The trout release energy when they respire.

Some energy will be lost in waste from the trout.
A fish farmer feeds trout on food made from soya beans.

When the trout are large enough the farmer sells them for food for people.

Some trout die before they are large enough to be sold.
The dead trout contain carbon.

Use your knowledge of the carbon cycle to describe how this carbon is returned to the atmosphere after the trout die.
Any 2 from;

-- Carbon dioxide/CO2 is released
-- turned into fossil fuels
-- decay / rot / decompose / break down / digest
-- microorganisms / bacteria / decomposers / microbes / fungi / detrius feeders.
Many of the beans sold in supermarkets in the UK are grown in Kenya, a tropical country in Africa.

Beans grow faster in kenya than they do in the UK.

Suggest and explain one reason why.

Reason ____________
Explanation ____________
more light / warmer/hotter /
more water/lot of rain (1 mark)

Increased photosynthesis (1 mark)
Many people believe that we should buy locally produced food instead of food imported from abroad.

Explain how this would help the environment.
Less pollution (1 mark)

Less fuel used / Less transport (1 mark)
In a healthy person, insulin prevents high levels of glucose in the blood.

How does it do this?
Increases movement of glucose into cells/organs.
In type 1 diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin. In what way can it be treated?
Careful attention to diet AND injection of insulin.
In type 2 diabetes, the body cells do not respond to insulin. In what way can it be treated?
Careful attention to diet only.
Insulin is a hormone.

What type of substance is insulin?
Protein
What term is used to describe the small section of DNA which controls the production of insulin?
Gene
Starch is broken down sugar by amylase. Amylase is produced in the salivary glands.

Name two other organs in the digestive system which produce amylase.

1. ___________
2. ___________
1. Pancreas

2. SMALL Intestine