Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/86

Click to flip

86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is a healthy diet?

A healthy diet contains the right balance of the different foods your body needs and the right amount of energy

What are carbohydrates used for?

Carbohydrates are used for energy

What are fats used for?

Fats provide stored energy for use at a later time, when you're not eating carbohydrates insulation

What are proteins used for?

Cell growth and repair and build new tissue

What are vitamins and mineral ions needed for?

Mineral ions and vitamins are needed in small amounts for healthy functioning of the body (e.g. Healthy bones = calcium) // general health

What is fibre needed for?

Healthy bowels and digestive system, not taken up by the body as a nutrient, prevents constipation (when you can't remove faeces effectively) gives the right texture to faeces to remove them quickly

What is water needed for?

Transport and chemical reactions (all chemical reactions in the body take place in a watery environment)

When is a person malnourished?

When their diet isn't balanced I.e. Not enough of certain food groups or too much of certain food groups

What can a poor diet lead to?

Obesity, underweight or deficient diseases

What causes obesity?

Too many carbohydrates - more carbohydrates in than burning off

What conditions can obesity result in?

Arthritis, t2 diabetes, heart disease/stroke

What is a deficiency disease?

A disease caused by the lack of an essential nutrient in the diet

How can a person lose weight (body mass)?

A person can lose weight by burning off more carbohydrates than they eat

What is obesity?

Having a BMI of over 30, being very overweight and having accumulated so much fat it might cause health risks

What does exercise do (in terms of energy)?

Exercise increases the amount of energy used by the body

What is metabolic rate?

The rate at which all the chemical reactions in the cells are carried out

**Why are antibiotics not used on measles?

1. Antibiotics don't kill viruses


2. Because viruses live inside body cells


Or - killing a virus would kill a body cell

Where is cholesterol made?

In the liver

What sort of foods are proteins found in?

Meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, nuts, lentils, chicken

When are proteins especially important?

When you are growing and need proteins to help build new tissue

What are proteins made up of?

Amino acids - building blocks for proteins

What are carbohydrates found in?

Pastas, potatoes, bread, rice sugars

Which provides energy more slowly? Sugar or rice/pasta etc?

Rice/pasta etc provide energy slowly compared to sugar

What foods are fats found in?

Butter margarine lard oils any foods containing oil or butter or are cooked in lard

Where is fibre found?

Fruit and veg

What happens if you don't eat enough vitamins and minerals?

You can suffer from a deficiency disease

What happens if you don't have a balaced diet?

You can suffer from malnutrition

What can malnutrition lead to?

Being underweight or overweight

How can you get underweight?

Using more energy than you take in as a result of lots of exercise, an active lifestyle (e.g. active job) or not eating enough food containing energy

What is metabolism?

All of the chemical reactions in the body

What do chemical reactions require?

Energy

Which factors is metabolism affected by?

- lots of exercise (higher metabolism)


- genetics --> can't change


- muscle to fat ratio in the body (muscle requires more energy compared to fat)


- people who exercise generally have a higher muscle to fat ratio


- men generally have a higher muscle to fat ratio


What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a type of fat that's required in the body to make cell membranes

What can too much cholesterol lead to?

Blocked arteries (LDL) specifically those around the heart

What happens if you have a high amount of cholesterol in your diet?

If you have high cholesterol levels in your diet, it can build up on the artery walls and block the artery - restricting the amount of blood that can flow --> heart attack

Whag factors can effect cholesterol levels?

- diet


- genetics

What is type 2 diabetes?

You cannot control blood sugar levels --> insulin is not recognised and doesn't work with the cells in the body to take out excess sugar

What is linked with T2 diabetes?

Being overweight or obese

What are some types of microorganism?

Bacteria, viruses, fungi

What is a microorganism?

A microscopic organism especially fungi, bacteria and viruses

Do all microorganisms cause disease?

No

What are disease causing microorganisms called?

Pathogens

How do bacteria cause disease?

Produce toxins which are poisons which cause damage in the body

Which are smaller, bacteria or viruses?

Viruses are much smaller than bacteria

How do viruses cause disease?

They infect the body cell by invading it, they then reproduce many copies using the cells DNA


They produce so many copies that the cell breaks open, damaging and destroying the body cell and releasing many copies


They do this to lots of cells and after time this causes illness

How many ways can white blood cells work in?

3

What do phagocytes do?

They ingest pathogens

What do lymphocytes do?

Produce antibodies

What three ways can white blood cells protect against disease?

Ingesting pathogens


Producing anti bodies


Producing anti toxins

How do phagocytes work?

Ingesting


The phagocyte recognises the pathogen and moves towards it


It surrounds the pathogen


The pathogen is engulfed


The white blood cell releases enzymes (chemicals which break down and digest the pathogen) over a period of minutes


Removing pathogens, making them harmless

How do lymphocytes work?

Producing anti bodies


All bacterium have antigen on their surface


All antigen have a specific shape


The antibodies have a shape that matches the antigen


It takes white blood cells a while to work out the shape of antibodies, but once it has they are reproduced rapidly


The antibody attaches to the antigen and start destroying the bacteria

How do antitoxins work?

The antitoxins neutralise the toxins to make them harmless

How can we prevent the body from infections that haven't happened yet?

Through a process called vaccination

What do vaccines contain?

A copy of the dangerous pathogen which is dead/deactivated

How does vaccination work?

A dead or inactive copy of the soecific pathogen is injected


This pathogen isn't harmful but still has antigen on the surface


The white blood cells detect the antigen and recognise how to make antibodies to fit them and attack the pathogen


In the future the white blood cells can very quickly produce these antibodies for this particular pathogen


So if it comes into contact with a live version, the body has memorised how to produce antibodies for it and rapidly produces the right antibodies to destroy the disease



Simply because it recognises the antigen


How can we make it harder for a disease to spread?

Vaccinate a higher proprtion of the population

Why does vaccinating a higher proportion of the population prevent disease more effectively?

The more people vaccinated, the harder it is for the disease to spread because when most people are vaccinated it is difficult for the pathogen to find its way to an unvaccinated person --> more distance between non vaccinated people and less chance of the contracting the disease

What does MMR protect against?

Measles


Mumps


Rubella

What are the issues with the MMR vaccine?

Some scientists think the MMR vaccine is linked to a condition called autism

What happens if we have a large number of people in the population who are vaccinated?

It makes if more difficult for a disease to spread because there's so much space between the people who aren't or there are so few people who aren't

What is autism?

A condition that affects people's communication and social interaction skills


It can be mild or severe

What is a common question on MMR and autism?

A graph, testing your data skills


Comment on how the trends are similar and change


Suggest reasons

What did Semmelweis notice in his hospital?

There were cases of childbed fever (a fatal disease)


He observed that when a midwife helped to deliver a baby there were a low number of childbed fever cases however when a medical student helped to deliver a baby there were a high number of cases (the worked on dead bodies for research)


He also observed that the medical student was disecting dead bodies for research and didn't wash hands and help to deliver a baby


Semmelweiss -how did he conduct his research?

Made observations


Collected some data


Made a hypothesis (an idea/prediction based on observations)


He then tested his hypothesis with an experiment/investigation


Then he recorded results


Reached a conclusion

What was Semmelweiss's hypothesis?

There was something being carried between dead bodies and pregnant ladies which caused childbed fever

How did Semmelweiss investigate his hypothesis?

He introduced hand washing for medical students

Why was Semmelweiss's theory not accepted ar first?

Bacteria hadn't been discovered


Hand washing was umpopular


What did Semmelweiss find?

Deaths were reduced from childbed fever, especially when medical students delivered babies


He concluded that washing hands helps


He found that something was carried on the hands of medical students who worked with pregnant women

What does a pathogen cause (something as a result of a disease/infection) ?

Symptoms

What are symptoms?

E.g. headache, runny nose, cough, fever (hot temperature)


Different for different types of pathogen

What happens is a person doesn't take medicine but has an infection?

The white blood cells remove the pathogen

What is the difference between painkillers and antibiotics?

Although painkillers remove symptoms painkillers don't reduce the amount of pathogens in the body, whereas antibiotics kill the pathogen

What do painkillers do?

Relieve symptoms

What are antibiotics?

Chemicals which have an effect on the bacteria, killing the pathogens so relieving symptoms


Pathogens are all killed/eradicated

What happens if a doctor prescribes antibiotics too much or too often?

The pathogens have a lot of exposure to the antibiotics


Although the pathogens are killed one may be left over which is resistant to antibiotics (can't be killed by antibiotics)



What is antibiotic resistance caused by?

Mutations in a bacteria's dna

What is a mutation?

A random (don't know which part of the dna it will affect) spontaneous (can't be predicted) change in the DNA which affects the genes

What does a change in the DNA cause for the offspring of bacteria?

The offspring have this new change in DNA also


So if one DNA becomes resistant to antibiotics, this change in DNA is passed onto offspring which are also resistant


We now have a whole population of antibiotic resistant bacteria (resistant strain)

What happens when there is a resistant strain of bacteria?

The bacteria is resistant to the antibiotic so the antobiotic doesn't kill it

What are the steps of antibiotic resistance?

1. Bacterium has developed resistance to an antibiotic (caused by a mutation in dna)


2. The bacterium can divide and reproduce more like itself


3. There is a population of antibiotic resistant bacteria


What can scientists do about resistant strains?

Scientists must develop a new antibiotic that will kill the resistant population of bacteria

What happens if a new antibiotic for a previously resistant strain is prescribed too much?

The bacteria is exposed to the antibiotic a lot and one bacterium may become resistant again, causing another resistant population


They aren't only resistant to the original antibiotic but also the newly developed antibiotic

Summary of sequence for MRSA?

Too many antibiotics



Antibiotic resistance



Because we get mutation in the dna (the mutations aren't caused by antibiotics, they are random and spontaneous and sometimes the mutation causes the bacteria to be resistant)



The bacteria can reproduce and pass on their resistant mutation to offspring (natural selection) creating a resistant strain



The new antibiotic resistant bacteria are produced by natural selection as we have created an environ

What has worsened superbugs?

- over prescription


- not finishing the recommended course

What happens if you stop taking antibiotics half way through the course?

The non resistant bacteria die, leaving room for resistant bacteria in the body

**Apart from hygiene, how has death rate decreased in hospitals?

-better knowledge of immunity/vaccination


-better drugs e.g. Antibiotics


-sterilisation of equipment


-earlier treatment of infections