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341 Cards in this Set

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Article 2 states: "Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence, and every power, jurisdiction, and right, which is not by this Confederation expressly delegated to the United States, in Congress assembled." What does this mean in practice?
States retain nearly all government powers except those specifically given to the Congress.
Name the purposes of the National government as outlined in Article 3 in the Articles of Confederation?
Secure liberties, common defense, mutual welfare
How many votes in Congress did each state get? (The Articles of Confederation)
Which of the following government roles were created by the Articles of Confederation?
Name to be United States of America.
Article 1; Articles of Confederation
States retain all rights not expressly delegated.
Article 2: Articles of Confederation
States enter into league of friendship and mutual defense.
Article 3: Articles of Confederation
Citizens of any State have same rights as residents of any State. Extradition allowed. Each State shall recognize court proceedings of other States.
Article 4: Articles of Confederation
Authorizes Congress. Delegates picked by State Legislature for one year and may be replaced at will. Two to seven members per State ÐÐ one vote per State. Rotation in office (no more than three years of six). Delegates may not hold other paid U.S. offices. Each State maintains its own delegates. Freedom of speech and debate in Congress -- delegates cannot be arrested.
Article 5: Articles of Confederation
States may not enter into separate treaties with other nations or each other. No State may levy duties that interfere with U.S. treaties. No warships or standing armies may be kept by any State unless authorized by Congress. Each state shall keep a militia and keep arms and provisions for it. No State shall engage in war unless attacked, authorized by Congress, or threatened by Indians.
Article 6: Articles of Confederation
Each State can appoint officers (through colonel) for land forces raised by the State.
Article 7: Articles of Confederation
All costs of war and all other expenses, shall be defrayed out of a common treasury. Each State shall contribute to the treasury in proportion to real estate value of each State. Taxes will be levied by the State Legislatures.
Article 8 - Articles of Confederation
Congress shall have rights to: determine war and peace, foreign affairs (but may not exempt foreigners from taxes levied by States against their citizens), grant letters of marque and reprisal, establish courts for trial of piracy, shall be the court of last appeal in boundary disputes between states, fix the standards for coinage (no provision for paper money), fix standards of weights and measures, regulate affairs of Indians (but States' rights may not be infringed), establish an interstate Post Office, appoint officers above colonel in the ground forces, appoint all naval officers, make rules for the military and direct their operations, appoint a "Committee of the States" to run the country when Congress is not in session. Most of the important actions, including borrowing money, require nine (of the thirteen) States to agree. The Committee of the States has many warmaking and executive powers.
Article 9 - Articles of Confederation
The Committee of the States has powers delegated to them by the nine States in Congress but cannot do anything that requires nine states.
Article 10 - Articles of Confederation
Canada can join the Confederation. Other new States require the approval of nine States.
Article 11 - Articles of Confederation
All debt contracted by Congress before the assembly of the U.S. is accepted.
Article 12: Articles of Confederation
Every State shall abide by the determinations of the Congress. The Union shall be perpetual. Any alteration requires the approval of Congress and of every State Legislature. The Articles become effective when approved by the State Legislatures and ratified by their delegates in Congress.
Article 13: Articles of Confederation
Name the problems that developed after the Articles were ratified?
* Currency problems - all states printed their own money, so money was almost worthless
* Intrastate Commerce - Trade between the states was limited because states imposed tarriffs on all imports from other states.
* Foreign Trade - Other countries placed tariffs and trade restrictions on US goods; the US was not able to reciprocate.
* Foreign Affairs - The inability of the national government to raise an army left the US vulnerable.
What were the weakness of the Articles of Confederation?
* no national executive
* no national court system
* national government could not collect taxes
* national government could not raise an army
* national government could not regulate trade
Name 4 government features under the Articles of Confederation.
1. unicameral legislature
2. one vote per state
3. unanimous vote needed to amend articles
4. 2/3 majority needed to pass legislation
Whose interpretation of the rights enumerated in the Magna Carta played a significant role in the ideology of the American colonists?
Edward Coke
What was John Locke's probable opinion of the Declaration of Independence?
John Locke would have likely supported the Declaration of Independence because the English government had violated it's contract with the colonists.
Colonists used the Magna Carta to justify their _________________.
opposition to new taxes
True or False
The Declaration of Independence includes ideas and principles found in John Locke's Second Treatise and details the ways in which the British government had violated principles found in the Magna Carta.
Locke's Second Treatise argues that the best defense against rebellion is
the ability to install a new legislation.
According to Locke, people submit themselves to the _____________.
What is the Magna Carta?
A statement of rights and privileges for British noblemen.
According to Locke, when the government tramples over the lives, liberties, and estates of the people, the people have a right to _____________.
True or False
A fundamental argument of Locke's Second Treatise is that people are not equal and invested with natural rights in a state of nature in which they live free from outside rule.
Who was the elected president of the Constitutional Convention?
George Washington
A compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman.
3/5 Compromise
The Three-Fifths compromise was proposed in order to
encourage southern states to support the new Constitution.
Which of the following individuals was instrumental in drafting the Constitution?
James Madison
What compromise set the number of representatives in the House proportional to population, while the number of Senators was set at 2 per state.
Great Compromise
The Three-Fifths compromise ultimately determined that
when determining population, slaves would be counted in a ratio of 3 slaves for every 5 free men.
Locke's Second Treatise argues that the best defense against rebellion is
to hold elections every year.
According to Article 4 in the Articles of Confederation, the states are not permitted to
engage in foreign trade
Article Thirteen explains the process for
amending the articles.
Those who supported a strong federal government
Those who opposed a federal system
How many state conventions were needed to ratify the Constitution?
They believed that each state should have a sovereign, independent government.
Name 3 anti-federalists
Patrick Henry
George Mason
Edmund Randolph
Name 4 Federalists
James Madison
George Washington
Alexander Hamilton
Benjamin Franklin
What was the date the Constitution was signed at the Continental Convention?
September 17, 1787
What was the 13 state to ratify the Constitution and what was the date it ratified?
Rhode Island
May 29, 1790
Name some arguments the Anti-Federalists had against the Constitution.
* Give the country a new and untested government.
* Stressed local rule and associated centralized power with a tyrannical monarch
* criticized lack of Bill of Rights
* the constitution would put an end to all forms of self-rule in the states
Name some arguments that the Federalists had for the Constitution.
* inadequacies of national government under the Articles of Confederation and on the benefits of national government as formed by the Constitution
* strong central government would foster the commercial growth of the new country.
* benefits of a union between states
* the importance of an energetic, effective federal government
* a defense of the republicanism of the proposed Constitution
* asserts that a weak union of the states will make the country more vulnerable to internal and external dissension, including civil war and invasion from foreign powers.
The most famous example of Federalist doctrine is ____________________, a collection of 85 essays by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and JOHN JAY.
The Federalists Papers
a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community.
In what argument did Madison contend that a republican government of the kind envisioned by the U.S. Constitution can best solve the problem of faction not by "removing its causes"—which only tyranny can do—but by "controlling its effects."
The Federalist Number 10
By 1791, in response to Anti-Federalist sentiments, state legislatures voted to add the first ten amendments to the Constitution. Those ten amendments are also called
The Bill of Rights
Who felt that democratic principles were best applied in an agrarian society?
Thomas Jefferson
In Federalist No. 10, which term does James Madison use to describe a number of citizens united by a common passion or interest?
What, according to Federalist No. 10, is the most common source of faction?
The unequal distribution of property
Which form of government does Madison say offers the BEST solution to control factions?
a large republic
The Federal Farmer letters written by Anti-federalists concede that ___________________ and ____________________.
The federal system is defective AND some of the state governments are poorly administered.
According to the Federal Farmer letters, who would suffer under the new Constitution?
the remote states
The Federal Farmer proposes that _________ be added to the Constitution
A Federal Bill of Rights
The Anti-Federalists achieved a victory when
a Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution
The Federal Farmer asserts that the laws of free government rest on the confidence of
the people.
What were the main goals and purposes of the Preamble?
1. Form a more perfect union (the Articles of Confederation did not work - basically to form a strong central government)
2. Establish Justice
3. Insure Domestic Tranquility
4. Provide for Common Defense
5. Promote General Welfare
6. Secure the Blessings of Liberty
The principle that states that the people- not the King, the legislators, nor the courts-are the true rulers in American government?
Popular sovereignity
Who was the Constitution's chief draftsman?
Gouverneur Morris
Who was the Constitution's chief architect?
James Madison
Which of the 13 states was not present at the Constitutional Convention?
Rhode Island
What does “preamble” mean?
statement of purpose
Which of the following statements is true of the Preamble to the Constitution?
The heading "The Preamble" does not appear in the Constitution.
What does the phrase “in order to form a more perfect Union” refer to?
the Convention’s goal to improve upon the Articles of Confederation
According to the Preamble, who “ordained and established” the Constitution?
the people of the United States
What is the duty of the legislative branch?
To make the laws
What is the longest part of the Constitution?
Article 1
Name 5 federal powers stated in Article 1.
1. collect taxes
2. borrow money
3. declare war
4. regulate commerce
5. establish post offices
What were the 2 compromises that came about in Article 1?
1. equal representation in the Senate for each state
2. 3/5 compromise
the constitutional doctrine of dividing governmental power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches
Separation of powers
the constitutional doctrine in which each branch of government shares some of the powers of the other branches in order to limit their actions
checks and balances
The framers of the Constitution designed ______________ to be the closest to the people.
House of Representatives
Who could vote in most states at the time of the Constitution's ratification?
White men who owned land
What are the basic requirements to be a member of the House of Representatives?
Minimum age of 25
7 years of US citizenship
Residence in the state in which they were elected
True or False

There is a term limit on being a member of Congress.
False - The Constitution puts no specific limit on the number of terms a member of Congress may serve, either in the House or the Senate.
The Constitution requires that a census of the general population has to be taken every ___________ years.
the process by which Congress allocates the number of representatives for each state, based on changes in the census
the process by which each state draws the boundaries of its congressional districts, according to the number of representatives allocated by Congress
Who is the highest officer in the legislative branch?
Speaker of the House of Representatives
Who is next in line to become president of the United States after the Vice President?
Speaker of the House of Representatives
Who chooses the Speaker of the House?
The majority vote in the House of Representatives
What is the process by which a civil officer of the United States is charged with wrongdoing
Who has the sole power of impeachment?
House of Representatives
The Constitution rotates the terms of office for senators so that the entire Senate is not up for reelection at the same time. Therefore, no more than________of the Senate is being elected every two years.
What requirements must you meet to become a US senator?
Thirty years of age
US citizen for 9 years
Resident from the state in which elected
Who is the president of the Senate?
Vice President of the US
Once the House has impeached an official whose job is it to try that individual?
The Senate determines guilt or innocence with a 2/3 majority vote. If found guilty, the official is immediately removed from office.
Congress must meet at least _____ per year.
the number of members in a group required to be present to carry out official business
unlimited and often irrelevant debate on a bill designed to prevent a vote on its passage
a procedural motion to end debate on a bill
A member of Congress can not be impeached, so how can they be removed from office?
Expulsion - 2/3 vote majority
Who are members of Congress paid by?
US Government
a joint committee of both houses of Congress that proposes compromise legislation when there are disagreements on bills
conference committee
the president’s power to reject a bill passed by Congress
How can Congress override the president's veto?
2/3 votes for both the House of Representatives and the Senate
the power of the president to prevent passage of a bill by refusing to sign it during an adjournment of Congress
Pocket veto
the power to reject specific provisions in a law without defeating the entire bill
Line item veto
the practice by which Congress voids actions of executive branch agencies or officials
legislative veto
the powers of the national government specifically listed in the Constitution
enumerated powers
those powers not specifically listed in the Constitution that can be inferred from the enumerated powers
implied powers
those powers that belong to the government of a sovereign state
inherent powers
taxes on imports
taxes on imports or general taxes
taxes on domestic consumption of goods and services
a court order directing that an officer who has custody of a prisoner show cause why the prisoner is being held
habeas corpus
a legislative act that punishes a person without a trial
bill of attainder
those that criminalize actions after the fact
ex post facto laws
most commonly, taxes based on the value of land, as opposed to those based on privileges or uses
direct taxes
According to Article 1, individual states may not
grant titles of Nobility

enter into treaties with foreign nations.

levy duties on imports or exports.
Article 2 involves what branch of government and what does the branch do?
Executive branch - enforces the law
doctrine that the president does not have to share certain information with Congress or the judiciary
executive priviledge
Requirements to run for president
natural born citizen
At least 35 years of age
Lived in US for 14 years
Roles of the president
Commander in Chief
To pardon federal criminal offenses
Negotiate treaties with foreign countries
Make judicial nominations
Give state of the union addresses
Meet and address foreign leaders
the president’s selected advisors, usually consisting of the heads of the executive departments
a large and complex administrative organization
the constitutional power of the Senate to approve treaties and presidential appointments
advice and consent
What is the duty of the judicial branch?
Interpret the laws
the power of the courts to declare a law or an act of the executive unconstitutional
judicial review
philosophy under which judges avoid overturning statutes and precedents
judicial restraint
philosophy under which judges do not avoid overturning statutes and precedents
judicial activism
policy of construing the Constitution’s text narrowly to limit government power
strict construction
policy of construing the Constitution’s text broadly to allow flexible government power
loose construction
the legal authority of a court to hear and decide a case
determinations by the Supreme Court whether future actions of the president or Congress would be constitutional
advisory opinions
cases that a court can hear directly, rather than through appeals
original jurisdiction
cases based on appeals from lower courts
appellate jurisdiction
an order issued by the U.S. Supreme Court that directs a lower court to transmit records for a case that it will hear on appeal
writ of certiorari
the forfeiture of rights and property by a person convicted of treason
revoking the inheritance of the descendants of a treasonous person
corruption of blood
Which article governs the relationship between states?
Article 4
What is the Full Faith and and Credit clause in Article 4?
requires states to respect one another’s civil laws, records, and court rulings. It also allows Congress to establish standards to validate such official acts, as well as regulate “the effect thereof.”
This section of Article IV, known as the Privileges and Immunities Clause=describe it.
prohibits states from discriminating against citizens of other states without justification
the surrender by one state to another of a person accused or convicted of a crime in the other state
it says that the United States will ensure that every state has a “republican form of government.”
This provision in Article IV is known as the Guarantee Clause
Article V is the process of
amending the Constitution
approval of the U.S. Constitution or its amendments by state conventions or legislatures
Article VI says
the Constitution and laws of the United States are “the supreme law of the land.”
Federal trumps state power
a political system in which power is shared between the national and state governments
Article VII states that
you need 9 of 13 states to ratify the US Constitution
According to Articles 2 and 3, the President ______________________ but Congress _________________.
is the Commander in Chief of the military; may declare war
Name the 2 ways to ratify an amendments
Two-thirds of the states must vote to ratify an amendment and then Congress must hold a Constitutional Convention to approve the amendment or two-thirds of the representatives in the House of Representatives may vote to amend the constitution, without the states’ consent.
The 1st 10 amendments of the constitution are called
The Bill of Rights
When were the Bill of Rights ratified?
December 15, 1791
How many amendments are there?
The rights protected in the First Amendments
Freedom of religion, press, assembly, speech, and petition
the requirement that government or its agents must be involved in order for the Constitution or the Bill of Rights to apply
state action
process by which the Supreme Court applied the Bill of Rights to the states via the Fourteenth Amendment
prohibits the government from creating an official or established church, preferring one religion over another, or benefiting believers instead of nonbelievers.
Establishment Clause
prohibits the government from interfering with the expression of religious beliefs.
Free Exercise Clause
the act of inciting people to change the government
speech that involves only spoken words, without actions
pure speech
speech that combines spoken words with action, such as demonstrations and picketing
speech plus
actions that are themselves a message, without spoken words; also known as “expressive conduct”
symbolic speech
a place such as a public park or street that is normally open to First Amendment activities
public forums
speech or action that portrays sex or nudity contrary to societal standards of decency
hurting a person’s reputation by spreading falsehoods
defamation using spoken words
defamation using written words
abusive and insulting comments delivered face-to-face to a specific individual
fighting words
government control of free expression
printing criticism of the government
seditious libel
censoring a work before it is published
prior restraint
knowledge that a statement is false or reckless disregard of whether it is false
actual malice
ability of a hostile bystander to end a peaceful assembly
heckler's veto
Amendment 2 states
the right to bear arms
part-time citizen soldiers who defend their communities in emergencies
a permanent army of professional soldiers
standing army
Amendment 3 states
you should not have to quarter soldiers in time of peace, they can in wartime however must but pay the owner
Amendment 4 protects against
unreasonable search and seizure
orders allowing government agents to search anywhere and anyone they wanted
general warrants
a type of general warrant used by British customs officials to search colonial homes and businesses for smuggled goods on which import taxes had not been paid
wit of assistance
court orders allowing certain actions, such as arrests or searches
a reasonable belief that a particular person has committed a particular crime
probable cause
legal doctrine that excludes from a trial any evidence seized illegally by police
exclusionary rule
Amendment 5 states what
freedom from self incrimination

Other rights in the Fifth Amendment include the right to have serious criminal charges screened by a grand jury; to avoid being tried twice for the same offense; to have due process of law; and to receive just compensation when private property is taken for public use.
a large jury, normally of twenty-three citizens, that determines if there is enough evidence to charge a defendant with a crime
grand jury
a trial jury, usually of six to twelve citizens, that decides the facts in a civil or criminal case
petit jury
formal criminal charge issued by a grand jury when a prosecutor has enough evidence for trial
formal criminal charge issued by a grand jury independent of a prosecutor
a sworn statement by a prosecutor that he has enough evidence for a trial
trying a defendant more than once for the same offense
double jeopardy
compelling a defendant to testify against himself
questioning accused persons under oath to determine their guilt
forcing the government to prove its case through evidence
the government’s power to take private property for public use
eminent domain
The amendment repeats Article III’s guarantee of a trial by jury in criminal cases, but it adds other important rights as well—such as the right to subpoena witnesses and to have a lawyer.
Amendment 6
the location of a trial
isolating the jury from the community and the news media during a trial
process in which the defendant pleads guilty to criminal charges in exchange for a reduced sentence
plea bargains
questioning potential jurors to reveal their biases and knowledge of the case
voir dire
excluding a potential juror without cause
peremptory challenge
a court hearing where the defendant pleads guilt or innocence
a serious crime with a sentence of more than a year in prison
a minor offense with a sentence of a brief jail term or a small fine.
This provision, known as the _________ , prevents a witness from testifying in secret against the accused.
Confrontation Clause
the process of asking questions to challenge a witness’s testimony
testimony about the statement of a third party, rather than something directly observed
a court order forcing a witness to testify or produce relevant evidence
7th Amendment states
trial by jury in civil cases

also limits a judge’s power to overturn factual decisions by a jury
those lawsuits deciding disputes between private parties over noncriminal matters, such as personal injuries or contracts
civil cases
those in which the government punishes individuals for committing crimes
criminal cases
Amendment 8 protects against
excessive fines and punishment
money or property posted as security to obtain release from jail pending trial
factors that increase the severity of a crime
Aggravating circumstances
factors that decrease the severity of a crime
mitigating circumstance
legal doctrine by which accomplices are convicted of murder—even if another person actually killed the victim—when it was committed as part of a felony such as kidnapping or robbery
felony-murder rule
Amendment 9 states
enumerated rights of the people
those rights not specifically listed in the Constitution
enumerated rights
Tenth Amendments protects
powers of the state
doctrine that states can declare an act of the federal government to be null and void; also known as interposition
What amendment protects the states against lawsuits in federal courts by citizens of other states or a foreign nation?
doctrine that a sovereign government cannot be sued without its consent
sovereign immunity
What Amendment changed the way the president and vice president were chosen under Article II?

Putting presidential and vice presidential nominees on different ballots
Amendment 13 is
abolishment of slavery
14 Amendment establishes
former slaves were granted citizenship and promised “equal protection of the laws.”
program in which employers take positive steps to offer training and jobs to groups that have suffered discrimination in the past
affirmative action
What amendment defined citizenship for the first time?
14 Amendment
Which amendment has the due process clause for states?
14 Amendment
process by which the Supreme Court has applied the Bill of Rights to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment
doctrine that the content of a law must be fair, not just its procedures
substantive due process
the process of extending certain “fundamental” rights in the Bill of Rights to the states
selective incorporation
this provision in the Fourteenth Amendment contains the first use in the Constitution of the word “equal” regarding the rights of individuals. Prohibits discrimination.
Equal Protection Clause
a system of segregation imposed by laws named after a minstrel show character
Jim Crow laws
What amendment specifically gives the right to vote to males?
14 Amendment
What amendment says that the right to vote can not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude?
15 Amendment
What amendment made legal income tax?
16 Amendment
Which amendment makes possible Senators being elected by the people?
17 Amendment
Which amendment prohibited alcohol?
18 Amendment
Which amendment gave women the right to vote?
19 Amendment
incumbents who have not been reelected to office
lame ducks
What amendment reduced the time of lame ducks, moved the election date, and specifies who should be president if the president elect dies or has not been chosen by the date of inauguration?
20 Amendment
What amendment repealed the 18 amendment that prohibited alcohol?
21 Amendment
What amendment set a 2 term/10 year maximum for presidency?
22 Amendment
What amendment gave residence of DC the right to vote for president?
23 Amendment
What amendment outlaws poll taxes in elections?
24 Amendment
head taxes that can be used in a discriminatory way to prevent participation in voting
poll taxes
What amendment lays out the succession of the presidency?
Amendment 25
What amendment lowered the voting age to 18?
Amendment 26
Which amendment prohibits congress from voting themselves a raise?
Amendment 27
What amendment states freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, freedom to peaceably assemble and right to petition the government for redress of grievances
Amendment 1
The “Right to Bear Arms” is established in which amendment?
Amendment 2
Which 2 amendments address the issue of Prohibition?
Amendment 18 and 21
What amendment allows states to deny former supporters of the Confederacy the right to vote or hold public office.
B. details consequences if states deny male citizens over the age of 21 the right to vote.
C. guarantees that any person born in the United States is a citizen.
Amendment 14
True or False
The rights are limited; in certain circumstances the government can restrict or limit (but not suspend) the rights.
Which of the following rights are not guaranteed by the 5th Amendment?

* A. The right to “due process of law”
* B. The right to represent oneself in a court of law
* C. Protection of property from government seizure without appropriate compensation.
* D. The right to be tried only one time for a specific crime
The period of time 1789 to 1901
Dual Federalism
The period of time 1901 to 1960
Cooperative Federalism
The period of time 1960 to 1968
Creative Federalism
The period of time 1968 to Present
Contemporary Federalism
What are the three essential features that characterize a federal system of governance?
First, there must be a provision for more than one level of government to act simultaneously on the same territory and on the same citizens.
Second, each government must have its own authority and sphere of power, though they may overlap.
Third, neither level of government (federal or state governments) can abolish the other.
During this period, the former colonists successfully fought the War of Independence and established a national government under the Articles of Confederation.
a series of 85 essays by James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton writing under the pen name Publius
The Federalists
held that any state could suspend within its boundaries the operation or implementation of any federal law it deemed to be unconstitutional.
Doctrine of Nullification
To a greater extent than on the federal or state level, __________ directly serves the needs of the people, providing everything from police and fire protection to sanitary codes, health regulations, education, public transportation, and housing.
the city
Name the three general types of city government
the mayor-council, the commission, and the city manager.
What governing body is created by charters issued by the state government.
city government
Which of the following court cases demonstrates the ability of the federal government to become involved in state government affairs?
Baker vs. Carr
What court case primarily dealt with the Supremacy clause?
McCulloch v. Maryland
What case addressed the issue of the scope of Congress' authority under the commerce clause?
Gibbons v. Ogden
The president can issue rules, regulations, and instructions. These are called
executive orders
Who nominates – and the Senate confirms – the heads of all executive departments and agencies, together with hundreds of other high-ranking federal officials.
the president
Who can veto any bill passed by Congress and, unless two-thirds of the members of each house vote to override the veto, the bill does not become law.
the president
Who is the federal official primarily responsible for the relations of the United States with foreign nations.
the president
The heads of the 14 departments, chosen by the president and approved by the Senate, form a council of advisers generally known as the president's _________________.
Which department supports agricultural production to ensure fair prices and stable markets for producers and consumers, works to improve and maintain farm income, and helps to develop and expand markets abroad for agricultural products.The department attempts to curb poverty, hunger, and malnutrition by issuing food stamps to the poor; by sponsoring educational programs on nutrition; and by administering other food assistance programs, primarily for children, expectant mothers, and the elderly. It maintains production capacity by helping landowners protect the soil, water, forests, and other natural resources.
Department of Agriculture
What department serves to promote the nation's international trade, economic growth, and technological advancement. It offers assistance and information to increase U.S. competitiveness in the global marketplace; administers programs to create new jobs and to foster the growth of minority-owned businesses; and provides statistical, economic, and demographic information for business and government planners.
Department of Commerce
What department is responsible for all matters relating to the nation's military security?
Department of Defense (DOD)
What department provides national leadership to address critical issues in American education and serves as a clearinghouse of information to help state and local decisionmakers improve their schools. The department establishes policy for and administers federal aid-to-education programs, including student loan programs, programs for disadvantaged and disabled students, and vocational programs.
Department of Education
Staff offices within DOE are responsible for the research, development, and demonstration of energy technology; energy conservation; civilian and military use of nuclear energy; regulation of energy production and use; pricing and allocation of oil; and a central energy data collection and analysis program.
What department protects the nation's environment by setting standards to minimize the harmful effects of energy production.
Department of Energy
What department, which oversees some 300 programs, probably directly touches the lives of more Americans than any other federal agency. Its largest component, the Health Care Financing Administration, administers the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which provide health care coverage to about one in every five Americans.
Department of Health and Human Services
What department manages programs that assist community development and help provide affordable housing for the nation.
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
As the nation's principal conservation agency, what department is responsible for most of the federally owned public lands and natural resources in the United States.
Department of Interior
What department represents the U.S. government in legal matters and courts of law, and renders legal advice and opinions upon request to the president and to the heads of the executive departments.
Department of Justice
What department promotes the welfare of wage earners in the United States, helps improve working conditions, and fosters good relations between labor and management.
Department of Labor
What department advises the president, who has overall responsibility for formulating and executing the foreign policy of the United States. The department assesses American overseas interests, makes recommendations on policy and future action, and takes necessary steps to carry out established policy.
Department of State
What department establishes the nation's overall transportation policy through 10 operating units that encompass highway planning, development, and construction; urban mass transit; railroads; civilian aviation; and the safety of waterways, ports, highways, and oil and gas pipelines.
Department of Transportation
What department is responsible for serving the fiscal and monetary needs of the nation. The department performs four basic functions: formulating financial, tax, and fiscal policies; serving as financial agent for the U.S. government; providing specialized law enforcement services; and manufacturing coins and currency.
Department of Treasury
What department, established as an independent agency in 1930 and elevated to cabinet level in 1989, dispenses benefits and services to eligible veterans of U.S. military service and their dependents.
Department of Veteran Affairs
Who coordinates the intelligence activities of certain government departments and agencies; collects, correlates, and evaluates intelligence information relating to national security; and makes recommendations to the National Security Council within the Office of the President.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
What agency works with state and local governments throughout the United States to control and abate pollution in the air and water and to deal with problems related to solid waste, pesticides, radiation, and toxic substances.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Who is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Who coordinates the work of federal, state, and local agencies in responding to floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, and other natural disasters.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
Who is the governing body of the Federal Reserve System, the central bank of the United States. It conducts the nation's monetary policy by influencing the volume of credit and money in circulation.
The Federal Reserve Board
Who enforces federal antitrust and consumer protection laws by investigating complaints against individual companies initiated by consumers, businesses, congressional inquiries, or reports in the media.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
Who is responsible for the purchase, supply, operation, and maintenance of federal property, buildings, and equipment, and for the sale of surplus items.
The General Services Administration (GSA)
Who was established in 1958 to run the U.S. space program. It placed the first American satellites and astronauts in orbit, and it launched the Apollo spacecraft that landed men on the moon in 1969.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Who preserves the nation's history by overseeing the management of all federal records.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)
Who administers the principal U.S. labor law, the National Labor Relations Act.
The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
Who supports basic research and education in science and engineering in the United States through grants, contracts, and other agreements awarded to universities, colleges, and nonprofit and small business institutions.
The National Science Foundation (NSF)
Who is the federal government's human resources agency. It ensures that the nation's civil service remains free of political influence and that federal employees are selected and treated fairly and on the basis of merit.
The Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
What group, founded in 1961, trains and places volunteers to serve in foreign countries for two years.
The Peace Corps
Who was established to protect investors who buy stocks and bonds.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
What was created in 1953 to advise, assist, and protect the interests of small business concerns.
The Small Business Administration (SBA)
Who manages the nation's social insurance program, consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors benefits.
The Social Security Administration (SSA)
Who administers U.S. foreign economic and humanitarian assistance programs in the developing world, as well as in Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States of the former Soviet Union.
The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Membership in the House is based on each state's population, and its size is therefore not specified in the Constitution. Its current membership is ________.
The number of seats each state is given in the House of Representatives
is established every 10 years by an official census.
The day-to-day work of the Executive branch is
managed by the appointed heads of the various executive departments.
After new legislation is written, it must _________ before it can become a law.
be approved by the relevant Congressional committee

be debated and passed in both houses of Congress

be signed by the President
A court within the Judicial Branch that is established by Congress for a specific purpose and jursidiction.
Special Court
In spite of occasional errors, ________ is generally considered to be an effective way to keep track of public opinion.
Why did a two-party system emerge in American politics?
A winner take all system of voting encourages the development of two major parties.
What are these examples of:A two-party system limits choice among voters.
B. Policies may change dramatically in a short period of time when control of government changes from one party to the other.
C. Even large third parties have a difficult time succeeding in national elections.
drawbacks of a two-party system
What are these arguments?
# the possibility of electing a minority president
# the risk of so-called "faithless" Electors,
# the possible role of the Electoral College in depressing voter turnout, and
# its failure to accurately reflect the national popular will.
Arguments against the electoral college
What are these arguements?
Arguments for the electoral college
In the electoral college, each state is entitled to the number of electors equal ________________________
to their members in Congress
If no candidate recieves a majority of the electoral votes, how is a President chosen?
the House of Representatives
The decision in this Supreme Court Case established the right of the courts to determine the constitutionality of the actions of the other two branches of government. (judicial review)
Marbury vs. Madison
In what is perhaps the most infamous case in its history, the court decided that all people of African ancestry -- slaves as well as those who were free -- could never become citizens of the United States and therefore could not sue in federal court. The court also ruled that the federal government did not have the power to prohibit slavery in its territories.
Dred Scott vs Sandford
What decision set the precedent that "separate" facilities for blacks and whites were constitutional as long as they were "equal."
Plessy vs Fergerson
What case did the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unanimously that racial segregation in public schools violated the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which says that no state may deny equal protection of the laws to any person within its jurisdiction. The 1954 decision declared that separate educational facilities were inherently unequal.
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education
What case which recognized that a woman’s choice whether to have an abortion is protected by her right to privacy
Roe vs Wade
Freedom of (or from) religion. Freedom of speech. Freedom to assemble. Freedom to petition the government.
1st amendment
Right to bear arms.
2nd amendment
Freedom from quartering soldiers.
3rd amendment
Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. Warrants must only be issued upon probable cause, and shall be specific.
4th amendment
Criminal indictments must be by grand jury. Freedom from double jeopardy. Freedom from testifying against oneself. Right to face accusers. Right to due process. Right of just compensation for takings.
5th amendment
Right to speedy trial. Right to impartial jury. Right to be informed of the charges upon which the accused is held. Right to face accusers. Right to produce witnesses for the accused. Right to legal counsel.
6th amendment
Right to jury trial in civil cases. Facts found by a jury cannot be reexamined by another court.
7th amendment
Freedom from excessive bail or fines. Freedom from cruel or unusual punishment.
8th amendment
The listing of a right in any other part of the Constitution does not imply that other unlisted rights do not exist. Supreme Court decisions have found a handful of important rights that fall under this, such as the right to privacy.
9th Amendment
Right to not be a slave.
13th Amendment
Right to citizenship of any person born in the United States. Right to equal protection of the national and state laws. Right to be free of any law that abridges the privileges or immunities of a citizen. Right to be free of any law that deprives a person of life, liberty, or property without due process.
14th Amendment
Right to vote regardless of race or color.
15th Amendment
Right to vote for Senators.
17th Amendment
Right to vote regardless of gender.
19th Amendment
Right to vote for presidential electors if a resident of Washington, D.C.
23rd Amendment
Right to vote even if a poll tax or any other tax is unpaid.
24th Amendment
Right to vote guaranteed for any person at least 18 years old.
26th Amendment
is a responsibility implied by the Constitutional right to a trial by a jury of one's peers.
Serving as a juror
Individual rights in the original constitution are:
Habeas corpus, which requires an authority to prove to a court why it has cause to hold someone, is a key individual right.

A bill of attainder is a bill written to punish one person or group of people.

An ex post facto law is one which retroactively makes an act a crime.
Anyone who is born in the United States or anyone who is born to a parent who is a US Citizen is considered to be
a natural born citizen
Name one thing that only "natural born" citizens can do.
Run for president
These steps involve what? At no time will such a person ever be considered natural-born (unless the U.S. Code is changed in some way). The process to become a citizen involves several steps, including applying to become and becoming a permanent resident (previously known as a resident alien), applying to become and becoming naturalized, and finally taking the Oath of Allegiance to the United States. Children of naturalized U.S. citizens generally become citizens automatically, though they will also not be considered natural-born. There is a time constraint before a permanent resident can apply for naturalization, generally either 3 or 5 years. The other requirements are that there be a minimum length of time in a specific state or district, successful completion of a citizenship exam, ability to read, write, and speak English, and good moral character.
How to become a US citizen
The founder fathers meet at the Constitutional Convention for what reason?
To fix the problems with the Articles of Confederation; They ended up writing the Constitution.