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25 Cards in this Set

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What is masking and why is it necessary?
Masking is one sound covering up another sound. Sometimes it is necessary during testing to keep the non-test ear busy while testing the test ear. This insures that the non-test ear isn't "picking up" the sounds intended for the test ear.
What is otalgia?
earache
What is otorrhea?
discharge from the ear
Why should a person who has failed a pure-tone hearing screening be retested at a later date?
Almost 1/2 of initial failures will pass the second screening
What are 3 possible causes of a type B tympanogram?
1. The outer ear is full of cerumen. ECV (ear canal volume) is lower than 0.2- 0.3 cm.
2. The middle ear is full of fluid.
3. The TM is perforated. ECV is greater than 2.0 cm
Name 5 prenatal diseases that can cause hearing loss.
syphilis
toxoplasmosis - uncooked meat or cat feces
rubella
cytomegalovirus
herpes simplex
What is the most common viral disease to cause hearing loss prenatally?
cytomegalovirus
Name 3 post natal infections that can cause sensorineural hearing loss.
bacterial meningitis
mumps
measles
Meniere's disease?
A symptom complex affesting the membranous inner ear.
An inner ear disorder
Symptoms:
1. fluctuating s/n hearing loss
2. episodic vertigo
3. tinnitus
What are the causes of Menier's disease?
causes are thought to be allergies, metabolic disorders, and vascular disorders, resulting in a buildup of endolymph.
Is noise induced hearing loss a sensorineural or conductive hearing loss?
Sensorineural. When a person is exposed to intense sounds for a long time, the hair cells swell and stop functioning properly. After a period of time the hair cells regain their function and hearing returns to normal.
What are 3 basic measurements that make up the immittance test battery?
1. Tympanometry.
2. Static Immittance Audiometry
3. Acoustic reflex threshold
What is the acoustic reflex threshold?
The lowest possible intensity needed to elicit a middle ear muscle. Normal threshold range is from 65-95 dB HL.
What is Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR)?
The recording of the whole nerve action potentialat various levels of the cochlea, VIII nerve and brainstem area in response to an abrupt acoustic signal.
What is a spondee?
A two syllable word in which both syllables have equal stress.
Retrocochlear disorder is caused by disease, tumor or stroke. What type of lesions do these cause?
structural lesions of the nervous system
Central auditory processing disorder result from what?
functional lesions of the nervous system
What is the primary symptom of CAPD?
the inability to separate speech from noise.
What is a good way to test for retrocochlear disorders?
Word recognition tests (WRT) under adverse conditions.
What are other names for non-organic hearing loss?
functional hearing loss, pseudohypacusis and malingering.
What is a population who would be more likely to have a psychogenic hearing loss?
soldiers returning from war, who have seen unspeakable acts and conditions.
What frequencies are usually effected in a person with presbycusis?
the high frequencies are effected more than the low frequencies.
Why does a person with a high frequency hearing loss have more difficulty understanding speech than a person with a low frequency hearing loss?
Higher frequency sounds carry most of the information in speech. Unvoiced consonants are high frequency sounds.
Describe the characteristics of Cochleovestibular schwannoma that relate to hearing.
Cochleovestibular schwannoma is a tumor arising "anywhere along the course of the axons of the eighth cranial nerve from the glial-Schwann sheath junction up until their terminations within the auditory and vestibular end organs." This is an example of structural lesion (retrocochlear disorder) that effects hearing. Symptoms include tinnitus, unsteadiness, and hearing loss. Word and speech recognition difficulties may be a good indication of a retrocochlear disorder.


What Is the Site of Origin of Cochleovestibular Schwannomas?
Christof Rooslia, d, Fred H. Linthicum, Jr.b, Sebahattin Cureogluc, Saumil N. Merchanta

aMassachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.,
bHouse Ear Institute, Los Angeles, Calif., and
cDepartment of Otolaryngology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., USA;
dClinic of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Address of Corresponding Author

Audiol Neurotol 2012;17:121-125 (DOI: 10.1159/000331394)
At what age can you expect an infant to respond to sound?
A 4 month old should actually turn his/her head to localize to a sound.