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51 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Do Attitudes Predict Behaviour?


What is a Psychological Tendency?

An internal "hypothetical" construct

What is an Attitude?

A psychological tendency expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavour.

An evaluation is indicated by the 3 'ABC's of attitudes.

What are the 3 Abc's?

A- Affective Responses (emotions)

B- Behavioural Responses (predispositions)

C- Cognitive Responses (beliefs)

Where do Attitudes come from?

3 ABC's of Attitudes (categories)

A- Affectively-based Attitudes

>classical/operant conditioning

>evolutionary or genetic influence

B- Behaviourally-based Attitudes
>self-perception; habits
C- Cognitive-based Attitudes
>assessment of beliefs

What are the 3 reasons why people hold attitudes?

1. Schematic Function

>help organise experience

>help us to quickly master environment

2. Provide information to others

>help us to maintain connectedness with others

3. Allow social comparison

According to a functional approach to attitudes...

What functions to attitudes serve? (5)

1. Value Expressive

2. Knowledge

3. Instrumental/Utilitarian

>achieving reward/avoiding punishment

4. Social Adjustive

>fit in with social group

5. Ego-Defensive

>Avoid unpleasant truths about self

What are the 4 categories for measuring attitudes?

1. Self-report measures.

2. Unobtrusive (behavioural) Measures

3. Physiological Measures

4. Implicit Measures

> Automatic responses

What two scales mentioned in self-report measures?

1. Likert Scale

2. One-item scale

What scale is being described?

A number of items are written, participants answer all of them, and their score is the result of the sum of their responses.

Likert Scale

What is not picked up in a one-item scale, and what solution does the lecturer provide?

Attitude Ambivalence- both positive and negative attitudes.

Using positive and negative dimension scale

- how much do you like...?

-how much do you dislike...?

What are the problems with self report measures? (3)

1.Acquiescence bias

>leading questions and context effects

>tendency to agree with all questions

2.Social Desirability bias

>want to present self positively

3.Dishonesty? Evasion?

What is the bogus pipeline?

Using a fake polygraph (lie detector) machine.

-test questions trick person into thinking it works.

More socially desirable results are obtained

Some Physiological measures are associated with positive or negative evaluations.

What are the 3 physiological measured?

1. Galvanic Skin Response


2. Pupil Reactions


3. Facial Electromyographic Activity

>Facial feedback Hypothesis

>Small electrical impulses triggered in smiling

What are the two mentioned problems with Physiological Measures?

1. Requires equipment

>expensive and complicated

2. Only EMG gets at positive/negative difference

What are implicit measures of attitudes?

Peoples automatic evaluations of objects.

(opposite of explicit measures)

*Implicit and explicit attiudes may differ, neither can be considered the "true" attitude.

How are implicit measures assessed?

Implicit Association test (IAT)

-latency of response (reaction time) to attitude object related words that are variously paired with negative or positive words

e.g. pair object with positive attitude to negative words.

How is persuasion defined in the lecture?

The process by which attitudes are changed?

For each category of the ABC's of attitudes how are attitudes changed?

A-Emotional appeals and evaluative conditioning

B-Get behaviour change first/ Direct experience

>relies on self-perception theory

C-Rational Messages

>Contribute to beliefs

In the 1940's and 1950's a Yale research group led by Carl Hovland carried out a study based on the question, 'Who says what to whom?'

What three independent variables (possible causes or changes of attitudes) associated with persuasion were investigated?

1. Source factors (who says)

2. Message factors (what)

3. Audience Factors (to whom)

What are the 3 main source factors?

1. Likeability

2. High vs Low Credibility

3. Ulterior Motives of the Communicator

What is 'The Sleeper Effect' in persuasion (Kumakale & Albarracin, 2004)

Attitude change increased after time in the low credibility source group.

Why does the sleeper effect occur? (3)

1. Initial source discounting suppressed immediate persuasion

2. Message was convincing enough

3. Sufficent time has elapsed, allowing cue to be dissociated from message

*Occurs especially when cue follows the message

A functional approach to persuasion argues that targeting reasons why an attitude is held allows you to change it.

What were the three mentioned ways this approach can change attitudes.

1. Persuasive message must be directed at function that underlies attitude

2. Social adjustive attitudes can be changed by focusing on whether other people hold them

3. Ego-defensive attitudes can be changed by Removing threat to self

Social Judgement theory (Sherif) argues that messages be targeted appropriately.

What are the 3 latitudes around our beliefs

1. Latitude of Acceptance

-Acceptable beliefs

2. Latitude of Rejection

-Unacceptable beliefs

3. Latitude of Non commitment


>contains acceptable and unacceptable beliefs

What is indicated by:

a) a wider latitude of Acceptance

b) a wider latitude of rejection

c) a wide latitude of non commitment

a) Firm in beliefs that it is the right attitude, unlikely to change

b) Firm in beliefs it is not the right attitude, unlikely to change

c) Area of possibility, may be able to shift into area of acceptance or rejection. open to possibility of change.

When using fear appeals in persuasion:

How much fear is required, can you create too much fear?

Explain using the Inverted U relationship for Fear Appeals.

1. Low amounts failed to engage motivation

2. High amounts caused subjects to shut out message entirely

3. Moderate amounts work best

When can High fear messages be successful?

1. Stress does not overwhelm

2.Recipient believes feared outcome will only occur if a recommendation is not followed

3. Recipients believe recommendation will work to eliminate outcome.

For message factors what 3 research areas were mentioned as influencing the impact of the message?

1. One-sided vs. Two-sided messages

>counter arguing

2. Message repetition

>familiarity leads to liking

3. Primacy and Regency Effects

>Going first has more influential argument than message told last
>Long delay more recent message has impact

What are the two ways the Audience may differ in reaction to message?

1. Need for Cognition

>extent to which people enjoy thinking

- increases likelihood of systematic processing

2. Self-Monitoring

>extent that people care about self expression vs. self presentation

According to the Elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) what are the two routes to persuasion?
1. Central Route
-systematic processing
-thinking carefully about message, processing, use cognitive ability.
2. Peripheral Route
-superficial processing
-autopilot, reacting to superficial aspects (e.g. attractiveness of source)
After hearing the argument on financial spendings Samantha did the following things before accepting or rejecting the advocated position:
-Carefully elaborated on information given, looking at positive and negatives, and thought about the message.

What route for processing persuasive communications did she take?

The Central Route.

Sophie's team mates argued that she was being selfish when spending team money. However Sophie did not pay attention as she was both tired from to much clubbing and did not care that she had upset people. Sophie made a quick decision to disagree with her team mates, reacting to the message based on her dislike for the team mates.

What route in processing information did Sophie take?

The Peripheral Route

What is the consequence of systematic processing?

(taking central route)

Creates attitudes that are:

-stable and long-lasting

- Resistant to future persuasion attempts

When taking the Peripheral Route, What are persuasion Heuristics?

An association of superficial cues with positive or negative evaluations.

Explain Heuristic processing.

relies on persuasion heuristics to evaluate an attitude object quickly and without thought.

What are the 5 mentioned persuasive heuristics?

1. Moods as heuristic cues

2. Familiarity heuristic

3.Attractiveness heuristic

4.Expertise heuristic

5.Message length heuristic

A study was conducted by petty et al. (1981) in which students were told they had to sit a major exam.

What 3 aspects of the message did the experimenter manipulate?

1. Strong and weak arguments

2. Given by experts or non-experts

3. Topic was personally relevant to students or not.

What was the outcome of the petty et al. (1981) experiment?

1. strong arguments were more persuasive than weak

2. more attention was paid when they were personally involved and source was less important

List the 4 factors mentioned to increase systematic (central route) processing.

1. Ability to understand information

2. Time to process

3. Freedom from distraction

4. Relevant knowledge

What are the 4 main ways people manage to resist persuasion?

1. Biased Information Seeking

>gather information supporting established position, ignore opposing information

2. Biased Processing

>take supportive information at face value, only remember arguments supporting own position.

3. Inoculation (McGuire, 1964)

4. Reactance (Brehm, 1966)

>feeling pushed to change attitude reduces feelings of control and are resisted.

What is innoculation and how is it used to resist persuasion?

If person knows their attitude will be challenged they can then gather information to refute opposing message.

*The more practice with this the more effective it is when resisting persuasion.

What 6 ways was Attitude inoculation used to help adolescents change their anti-smoking attitudes?

1. Publicly committing to not smoke.

2.Hear from people who are addicted.

3.challenged by students to resist pressures

4.identify pressures

5.rehearse methods to resist pressures

6.role play situations

What are the two effects of resisting persuasion?

1. More extreme attitude

2. Increased certainty of attitude

Who conducted the following study and in what year?

Experimenter took chinese guests to restaurants in france during a time of racial tension whereby staff were polite. He then wrote letters asking restaurants if they would serve a chinese person.

The responses saying they would not showed that their attitudes did not relfect their behaviour

LaPiere, 1934

What was the outcome of the the influential paper written based on his research of other attitude and behaviour studies by Wicker (1969).

that it is more likely that attitudes are unrelated or only slightly related to overt behaviours.

What are the 2 reactions mentioned in the lecture to Wicker's (1969) study.

1. Psychologists accepted that the attitude and behaviour relationship is only small to moderate.

2. Began to search for moderators of the influence of attitudes on behaviour.

>when do attitudes predict behaviour?

>which attitudes?

>for whom?

It became apparant that both attitudes and behaviours were not being measured correctly in the studies reviewed by Wicker (1969).

What two principles were used to better measure behaviours and attitudes?

1. The specificity principle

>Attitudes and behaviours should be at same level of specificity to highly correlate.

e.g. recycling behaviour and pro-recycling vs pro enviroment attitudes

2. The Aggregation principle

>Repeated observations, and multiple types of behaviour will more reliably correlate to attitudes.

What is a moderator variable?

It is an additional independent variable that tells us whether relationship is weak or strong.

What are the moderator variables mentioned for attitude strength?

1. Clarity, Confidence, Certainty, Centrality, Importance, Involvement, Extremity
2. Accessibility (chronic or spontaneous)
3. Based on Direct experience