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Two explanations about attachment:

~ LEARNING THEORY EXPLANATION




~ BOWLBY'S THEORY

1. LEARNING THEORY

learned, either because the child has associated the mother with the food or because the food (which the mother provides) is pleasurable.




ASSOCIATION = CLASSICAL CONDITIONING


REWARD/PLEASURE = OPERANT CONDITIONING.

1. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

The child becomes attached to the mother because of her association with food.

2. OPERANT CONDITIONING

food reduces the child's feelings of hunger, reduction of discomfort is rewarding.




FOOD = PRIMARY REINFORCER




MOTHER = SECONDARY REINFORCER

Outline Harlow's study:

8 newborn monkeys




two surrogate mothers




1 wire, 1 cloth





Findings of Harlow's study?

Monkeys spent most time with clothed moneky, especially when frightened. Only went to wire mother to feed.

Harlow Conclusion

Attachment is based just on food, comfort and security plays a part too.

Strength of Learning Theory

No extraneous variables




results more reliable

Weakness of Learning Theory

Harlow Study

BOWLBY THEORY INFLUENCED BY:

1. Evolutionary Theory




2. Imprinting




3. Freud

1. Evo T

Increased chance of survival, benefit parents and child. child attached to mother greater chance of surviving = adults genes survives.

2. Imprinting

refers to the process in which animals become attached to the first object they see.




However, bonding