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63 Cards in this Set

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What is the maximum demonstrated crosswind component?
17 Knots
PA-44 Engine: How many cylinders?
4 Cylinder
PA-44 Engine: Who is the manufacturer?
Lycoming
PA-44 Engine: What is the horsepower rating?
180 Horsepower
PA-44 Engine: Carbureted or Fuel Injected?
Carbureted
PA-44 Engine: Turbo-charged or normally aspirated?
Normally Aspirated
PA-44 Engine: Why is the right engine labeled as LO-360?
Because the right propeller rotates to the left
PA-44 Engine: How are the cylinders arranged?
Horizontally Opposed
PA-44 Engine: How is the ignition provided?
Engine driven magnetos, independent of the aircraft electrical system and each other.
PA-44 Engine: What are the minimum and maximum oil capacities?
1979: 4 to 6 qts (ATP min - 4.5)
2000: 6 to 8 qts (ATP min 6.5)
PA-44 Propeller: Who makes the propellers?
Hartzell
PA-44 Propeller: What does oil pressure do to the propeller?
Variations in oil pressure will change the propeller blade pitch
PA-44 Propeller: Which lever manipulates propeller oil pressure?
The blue propeller control lever
PA-44 Propeller: What unit regulates oil pressure to the propeller?
The propeller governor
PA-44 Propeller: What is the function of the nitrogen cylinder?
It allows full feathering of the propellers (High pitch, low RPM)
PA-44 Propeller: What is the purpose of the spring in the propeller dome?
Allows the blades to be driven into a high pitch-low RPM position.
PA-44 Propeller: Define constant speed
The propeller governor will vary blade pitch to maintain constant engine RPM
PA-44 Propeller: What adjust the propeller to maintain constant RPM? How?
Propeller Governor; It varies the propellor oil pressure.
PA-44 Propeller: Define full feathering.
Full feathering is when the propeller is fully aligned with the relative wind.
PA-44 Propeller: Will the propeller always feather?
No. It will not feather below 950 RPM due to a centrifugal stop pin.
PA-44 Propeller: What are centrifugal stop pins?
They prevent propeller feathering below 950 RPM to prevent excessive loads on the starter during the next startup.
What is the correct action for a propeller overspeed?
Retard Throttle, Propeller Control to full "Decrease RPM", reduce airspeed and maintain a maximum of 2700 RPM
Describe the Electrical System
14-Volt electrical system with push-pull circuit breakers. It has a 12-volt, 35 amp hour battery, and two 70 amp engine-driven alternators. Voltage regulators maintain constant 14-volt output from each alternator at varying engine RPMs as to share the electrical load.
What are the indications of a failed alternator?
An annunciator light and a zero indication on the loadmeter. One alternator can provide adequate eletrical power.
Will the engines continue to run with the alternator and battery master switches turned off?
Yes. The engine ignition is independent of the the aircraft electrical system.
PA-44 Vacuum System: Which instruments are vacuum driven?
The attitude gyro and, (on non slaved aircraft) the HSI.
PA-44 Vacuum System: What are the normal operating limits?
Between 4.8" and 5.2" Hg at 2000 RPM
PA-44 Vacuum System: How many vacuum pumps does the seminole have?
Two.
PA-44 Vacuum System: What are the indications of a vacuum pump failure?
An annunciator panel light will become lit, as will a red pump inoperative indicator on the vacuum gauge.
Describe the stall warning system
There are two electric stall detectors on the left wing. The inboard detector provides warning for 25 and 40 degree flap settings and the outboard detector provides warning for 0 and 10 degree flap settings.
Describe the fuel system
The seminole has two 55-gallon bladder nacelle tanks. Each tank has one gallon of unusable fuel. There are two engine-driven and two electrically-driven fuel pumps.
Explain how to cross fuel (use left engine as an example)
1. Left engine electric boost on
2. Left fuel selector to "X-Feed"
3. Check left fuel pressure
4. Left engine electric boost pump off
5. Check left fuel pressure
PA-44 Landing Gear: How is the landing gear actuated? Describe the pump.
Hydraulically actuated, fully retractable, tricycle-type landing gear. The pump is an electrically powered, reversible hydraulic pump.
PA-44 Landing Gear: What keeps the gear in the up position?
The gear is help up by hydraulic pressure.
PA-44 Landing Gear: What keeps the gear in the down position?
Springs assist in gear extension and lock the gear in the down position.
PA-44 Landing Gear: If hydraulic pressure is suddenly lost in flight, what indication, if any, will you have?
If hydraulic pressure is lost when the gear is up (during flight) the gear will free-fall.
PA-44 Landing Gear: In what three situations will the landing gear horn activate?
1. The gear is not locked in the down position with either engine below 15" Hg manifold pressure
2. The gear is not locked down with 25 or 40 degrees of flaps
3. The gear handle is in the up position on the ground (authorized personell only).
PA-44 Landing Gear: What unit will not allow the gear to be retracted on the ground?
This is prevented by a squat switch on the left main gear.
PA-44 Landing Gear: What is the procedure to extend the gear manually?
Place the gear selector in the down position, pull the red emergency gear extension knob to release hydraulic pressure and allow the gear to free-fall.
PA-44 Landing Gear: What airspeed is of importance during manual gear extension?
Manual gear extension is limited to 100 KIAS due to air-load on the nose gear.
PA-44 Landing Gear: Are the brake and landing gear hydraulics interconnected?
No. The brake and landing gear hydraulics are not interconnected.
PA-44 Landing Gear: If you lose gear hydraulics, will you still have brakes?
Yes.
Where is the brake fluid serviced?
The brake fluid reservoir for servicing is located in the nose cone.
What type of braking system is used in the Seminole?
Hydraulically actuated disc brakes.
What type of flaps does the Seminole have?
The Seminole has a manual flap system.
What are the flap settings on the Seminole?
0, 10, 25, 40 degrees
What are the maximum Taxi, Takeoff, and Landing weights?
Taxi: 3816
Takeoff and Landing: 3800
What is the maximum baggage capacity?
200 lbs
Define Vsse.
Safe speed for intentional engine failure. Seminole Vsse is 82 KIAS.
What are the drag factors for a light twin?
Flaps 25: -240
Flaps 40: -275
Windmilling Prop: -200
Gear Extended: -250
Who determines Vmc for a particular aircraft?
Aircraft manufacturers based on FAR 23.149
Why is an aft CG used in determining Vmc?
Because the most unfavorable CG (aft) is used to determine Vmc. An aft center of gravity decreases the moment arm between the CG and the rudder, decreasing the effectiveness of the rudder.
What are the factors used in determining Vmc?
1. Most unfavorable weight and CG
2. Standard day conditions at Sea Level
3. Maximum power on the operating engine
4. Critical engine prop windmilling
5. Flaps in takeoff position, gear up, trimmed for takeoff
6. Up to 5 degrees of bank into the operating engine
Define critical engine. What are the factors that are used to determine critical engine?
The critical engine is the engine that, when it fails, most adversly effects the performance and handling of the aircraft. It is determined by using the PAST acronym:
P: p-factor
A: Accelerated Slipstrem
S: Spiraling Slipstream
T: Torque
What causes an aircraft to sideslip with the loss of an engine? What action(s) is/are required to correct this?
Sideslip is caused by applying the rudder toward the operating engine to maintain heading with wings level. To correct this, banking the aircraft 2-5 degrees into the operating engine will create a horizontal component of lift that counteracts this sideslip condition.
How much climb performance is lost when an engine fails?
Approximately 80% of excess power and performance is lost.
Define Absolute and Single-engine service ceiling.
Absolute: Maximum density altitude the aircraft can achieve or maintain with the critical engine inoperative.
Single-engine service ceiling: The maximum density altitude at which the aircraft can produce a 50 FPM climb with the critical engine inoprerative.
Does the PA-44 have an altertnate static source? If so, what ensures the most accurate reading?
There is an alternate static source is located in the cabin under the left side of the instrument panel. When using the alternate source, the storm window and cabin vents must be closed, and the heater and defroster turned on.
What instruments are Pitot Static?
VSI and Altimeter and Airspeed indicator.
Where is the static port located?
Underneath the left wing.
How do you prevent a heater overheat?
On the ground, turn the three position heater switch to "FAN" for two minutes with the air intake lever open before turning the switch off. In the air, leave the air intake lever in the open position for a minimum of 15 seconds after turning the switch off.
When are the electric pumps used?
Engine start, takeoff, landing, and fuel selector changes.
What are the positions of the fuel selector control?
ON, OFF, and X-FEED