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36 Cards in this Set

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1. Factors that influence aviation weather safety include:

Pilot ratings and experience, aircraft design and performance specifications, and onboard equipment

2. What is responsible for the most weather-related accidents?

Adverse winds

3. Variable Wind

During a 2-minute evaluation period, it fluctuates by 60 degrees or more and the wind speed is more than 6kts (wind speed may be less than 6kts)

4. Wind Shift

Change in wind direction of 45 degrees or more within 15 minutes and has sustained winds of 10kts or more

5. IFR Weather

Below 3SM visibility, less than 1000ft ceiling

6. What is the single greatest cause of fatal accidents?

Continued visual into IFR wx

7. Indefinite Ceiling

Reported ceiling value represents the vertical visibility upward into a surface-based obscuration. It restricts the pilot's slant-range visibility

8. Fog

Reduces horizontal visibility to less than 5/8 SM. The most common obscuration

Temp- dew point spread is less than 3 fog forms

9. What types of precip most commonly produce IFR wx?

Rain, drizzle, and snow

10. Blowing Snow

Snow lifted from the surface of the earth by the wind to a height of 6ft or more and reduce horizontal visibility to less than 7SM

11. Volcanic Ash

May not be visible, especially at night or in IFR conditions

12. Mountain Obscurations

Wx phenomena causing the obscuration of mountain peaks. AIRMETs are issued

13. Turbulence is caused by:

Connective currents

Obstructions to wind flow

Wind shear


14. Convective Turbulence

Result from convective currents and the subsequent rising and sinking of air.

Most active on warm summer afternoons when winds are light Uneven surface heating

15. Mechanical Turbulence

Turbulence caused by obstructions such as trees, buildings, mountains, etc. obstructions to the wind flow disrupt the smooth flow of air

16. Mountain Wave

An atmospheric wave disturbance formed when stable air flow passes over a mountain or mountain ridge.

Waves remain nearly stationary while wind blows through. Severe to extreme turbulence

17. Wind Shear

A change in wind speed and/of direction in a short distance resulting in a shearing effect

18. What are 3 conditions of wind shear?

Low-level temp inversion

Frontal zone

CAT associated with the jet stream

19. When do temp inversions occur?

Nighttime cooling

Along frontal zones

Cold air trapped in a valley

20. Clear Air Turbulence (CAT)

Higher altitude occurring in cloud-free regions, associated with wind shear, in the core of a jet stream and the surrounding air.

21. Light Turbulence (LGT)

Momentarily causes slight, erratic changes in altitude/attitude. Occupants feel slight strain on seat belts. No difficulty in walking

22. Moderate Turbulence (MOD)

Changes in attitude/altitude occur with positive control of the aircraft at all times. Causes variations in indicated airspeed. Walking is difficult.

23. Severe Turbulence (SEV)

Large, abrupt changes in attitude/altitude causing large variations in indicated airspeed. Aircraft momentarily out of control. Walking is impossible

24. Extreme Turbulence (EXT)

Aircraft is practically impossible to control. May cause structural damage.

25. Aircraft reaction to turbulence varies with:

Difference in wind speed in adjacent currents

Aircraft size

Wind loading


Aircraft altitude

26. What are the effects of a high density altitude?

Reduces power and thrust

A longer takeoff and landing roll are required

27. When does structural icing form?

When supercooled water strikes the aircraft's airframe.

28. What are the 3 types of icing?




29. Rime ice

Rough, milky, opaque, formed by instantaneous freezing. Most common, but least serious type. Typically controlled by deicers. Disturb the airflow, easier to remove

Note: looks like the inside of a freezer

30. Clear Ice

Formed by slow freezing of large droplets. Can greatly disturb the airflow. Difficult to remove

31. Mixed Ice

Layers of relatively clear and opaque ice.

32. Trace Icing (TRACE)

Ice becomes perceptible.

Deicing not used unless encountered for over 1 hour

33. Light Icing (LGT)

It doesn't present a problem if the deicing is used occasionally

34. Moderate Icing (MOD)

Short encounters are potentially hazardous and deicing or diversion is necessary

35. Severe Icing (SEV)

Deicing fails and immediate diversion is necessary

36. Why are jets less vulnerable to Icing?

Powerful deicing equipment. Tendency to cruise at altitudes too cold for Icing