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29 Cards in this Set

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If a radioactive isotope were injected into your bloodstream, how many half-lives would youhave to wait before the amount of this isotope in your body is 1/16 its original amount?

4

A sunspot is a region on the surface of the sun that is ________ the photosphere of the sun.

cooler and dimmer in visible light than

What could happen in planetary systems where the nebular gas is quickly disbursed?

Large ice-rich planetesimals would not be able to gather hydrogen and helium andbecome gas giants.

If Earth had originally formed with less mass, it would likely have have a __________atmosphere and ____________ temperatures compared to now.

thinner; cooler

The carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere is cycled back down into the mantle by

plate tectonics.

Which of the following is not a piece of evidence supporting the idea that Europa may havea subsurface ocean?

Europa has a magnetic field that appears to respond to Jupiter's magnetic field

Approximately what is the core temperature of the Sun that allows hydrogen fusion?

10 million K

What two physical processes balance each other to create the condition known asgravitational equilibrium in stars?

gravitational force and outward pressure

Eta Aurigae is a star with an apparent magnitude of m = +3.2, and is located 75 parsecsfrom Earth. The absorption lines in Eta Aurigae's spectrum are slightly redshifted, indicatingthat Eta Aurigae is:

moving away from Earth

Fusion requires high temperatures in order for nuclei to move quickly enough to:A. overcome gravity

overcome electrostatic repulsion

Earth has fewer impact craters than the moon because of

its atmosphere

Compared to the oldest surfaces on Mercury, the more recently developed surfaces have___________ craters

fewer

Which method could detect a planet in an orbit that is face-on to the Earth?

astrometric (or “wobble”) method

The planet in our solar system with the highest average surface temperature is _________.

Venus

5. How do scientists estimate how old the solar system is?

They measure the abundances of radioactive elements in meteorites, and use theirhalf-lives to calculate the age.

6. Imagine another solar system, with a star of the same mass as the Sun. Suppose a planetwith a mass twice that of Earth (2 MEarth) orbits at a distance of 1 AU from the star. What isthe orbital period of this planet?

1 year

When we say that jovian planets contain significant amounts of hydrogen compounds, wemean all the following chemicals except _________.

carbon dioxide

How do we know the mass of Jupiter?

by measuring the periods and sizes of the orbits of the moons around Jupiter

Which of the following discoveries would cause us to re-evaluate the nebular theory forforming planets?

A star's 5 terrestrial planets orbit in the opposite direction of its 3 jovian planets

Which of the following statements about the accelerations and gravitational forces betweena planet and a star is true?

Forces are equal and opposite; the planet is accelerated more than the star.

. If the freezing point of ices of all types were at a much lower temperature, what changewould that imply for the formation of our solar system?

The gas giants would have to form at a larger distance.

Pluto is different from the Jovian planets in all of the following ways except which one?

It formed outside of the frost line in the solar nebula.

. Which of the following best explains why many jovian moons have been more geologicallyactive than the Moon or Mercury?

Jovian moons are made mostly of ice that can melt or deform at lower temperaturesthan can the rock and metal that make up the Moon and Mercury

Which of the following statements does not lend support to the idea that carbon dioxide is acause of global warming?

Isotope ratios in atmospheric carbon dioxide show that much of the carbon dioxide inEarth's atmosphere today comes from the burning of fossil fuels.

What kind of radiation shines out of the core of the Sun?

Gamma rays

Why is the sky blue?

Air molecules scatter blue light more than red light.

Suppose you could float in space just a few meters above Saturn's rings. What would yousee as you looked down on the rings?

countless icy particles, ranging in size from dust grains to large boulders

9. If Earth passed through the tail of a comet, what would happen?

A meteor shower would occur.

What is the source of Earth's magnetic field?

Molten metal circulating inside of Earth, moving electrons like in a wire