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12 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
5 Profound Accomplishments

1. The development of Calculus
2. The formulation of basic and universal law of motion body, published in Principia 3. Development of a universal law of gravity obeyed by all objects 4. a description of the nature of light and of the nature of color, published in Optics showing that white light consists of all colors 5. the invention of the reflecting telescope which eliminates a problem with refracting telescopes called chromatic aberration 

Robert Hooke Controversy

Arguments of nature of light. Hooke argued that color of light of changed through passage of glass, whereas Newton argued correctly that light was immutable.
Hooke claimed discovering the inverse square law 

Three Laws of Motion

1. Inertia:A body continues in its present state of motion or rest unless made to change
by an outside force. 2. F = ma: The amount of acceleration (a) that a force (F) produces depends on the mass (m) being accelerated. Acceleration is proportional to force and inversely proportional to mass 3. ActionReaction: When two bodies interact, they create equal and opposite forces on each other. 

Universal Law of Gravity

Two bodies
attract each other with a force (gravity) that grows in proportion to the masses of the bodies and in inverse proportion to the square of the distance between them. In equations, this reads as F = GMm/r2 where F is the strength of the force between two bodies, M is the mass of one body, m is the mass of the other body, r is the separation between the bodies' centers, and G is the constant of proportionality 

Orbital Motion

Newton's apple fell from a tree because it was not in orbit, but the
space shuttle, for example, can be launched into orbit if it has the proper orbital circular velocity 

Surface Gravity

The force of gravity on the Earth's surface on an object of mass m
is F=mg ⊕=GM⊕ m/R⊕ 2 . All objects near the surface of the Earth are accelerated toward the center of the Earth with the same acceleration, g ⊕=GM⊕/R⊕ 2 . This universal acceleration is called the surface gravity of Earth. Numerically, g ⊕=9.8 m/ s 2 The Moon's surface gravity is less than the Earth’s because the Moon is far less massive. In particular, g ⊕= 5.6g MOON. Thus, your weight on Earth is 5.6 times more than your weight would be on the Moon 

Inertia, Velocity, Acceleration

Inertia  property of an object whereby it tends ti maintain its state of motion and resist change
Velocity  speed and direction Acceleration  Change in speed OR direction of an object, describes rate of change of velocity 

Gravity

Force between objects due to their masses
Gravity is action at a distance Person's weight on moon is 1/6 of that of someone on Earth gEARTH ≈ 9.8 m/s2 gMOON = 1.61 m/s2 

The Universal Law of Gravity

There exists an attractive force between any
two objects called gravity The strength of the force grows in proportion to the mass of each object The strength of the force declines in inverse proportion to the square of the distance between each object. 

Newton's and Kepler's Laws

Newton’s.Laws.explain.Kepler’s.Third.Law!
The.implica&on.is.that,.from.the.orbits.of.planets.(or.moons). we.can.measure.the.mass.of.the.Sun.(or.planets). 

Predictions

The procession of the equinoxes
The fact that your weight is slightly higher at the poles than at the equator The ocean tides Irregularities in the moon's orbit 

Importance of Newton's Laws

Eliminated all doubt about heliocentric model
Provide a way to measure things quantitatively and predict the motions of things Kepler's laws can be derived from Newton's Modern science and clockwork universe 