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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
5 Profound Accomplishments
1. The development of Calculus
2. The formulation of basic and universal law of motion body, published in Principia
3. Development of a universal law of gravity obeyed by all objects
4. a description of the nature of light and of the nature of color, published in Optics
showing that white light consists of all colors
5. the invention of the reflecting telescope
which eliminates a problem with refracting telescopes called chromatic aberration
Robert Hooke Controversy
Arguments of nature of light. Hooke argued that color of light of changed through passage of glass, whereas Newton argued correctly that light was immutable.
Hooke claimed discovering the inverse square law
Three Laws of Motion
1. Inertia:A body continues in its present state of motion or rest unless made to change
by an outside force.
2. F = ma: The amount of acceleration (a) that a force (F) produces depends on the
mass (m) being accelerated. Acceleration is proportional to force and inversely
proportional to mass
3. Action-Reaction: When two bodies interact, they create equal and opposite forces on
each other.
Universal Law of Gravity
Two bodies
attract each other with a force (gravity) that grows in proportion to the masses of the bodies
and in inverse proportion to the square of the distance between them. In equations, this
reads as

F = GMm/r2

where F is the strength of the force between two bodies, M is the mass of one body, m is
the mass of the other body, r is the separation between the bodies' centers, and G is the
constant of proportionality
Orbital Motion
Newton's apple fell from a tree because it was not in orbit, but the
space shuttle, for example, can be launched into orbit if it has the proper orbital
circular velocity
Surface Gravity
The force of gravity on the Earth's surface on an object of mass m
is F=mg
. All objects near the surface of the Earth are accelerated
toward the center of the Earth with the same acceleration, g
. This
universal acceleration is called the surface gravity of Earth. Numerically, g
⊕=9.8 m/
The Moon's surface gravity is less than the Earth’s because the Moon is far less
massive. In particular, g
⊕= 5.6g
MOON. Thus, your weight on Earth is 5.6 times more
than your weight would be on the Moon
Inertia, Velocity, Acceleration
Inertia - property of an object whereby it tends ti maintain its state of motion and resist change
Velocity - speed and direction
Acceleration - Change in speed OR direction of an object, describes rate of change of velocity
Force between objects due to their masses
Gravity is action at a distance
Person's weight on moon is 1/6 of that of someone on Earth
gEARTH ≈ 9.8 m/s2
gMOON = 1.61 m/s2
The Universal Law of Gravity
There exists an attractive force between any
two objects called gravity

The strength of the force grows in proportion
to the mass of each object

The strength of the force declines in inverse
proportion to the square of the distance between
each object.
Newton's and Kepler's Laws
The procession of the equinoxes
The fact that your weight is slightly higher at the poles than at the equator
The ocean tides
Irregularities in the moon's orbit
Importance of Newton's Laws
Eliminated all doubt about heliocentric model

Provide a way to measure things quantitatively and predict the motions of things

Kepler's laws can be derived from Newton's

Modern science and clockwork universe